Seddiq Rahpoe Tarzi



In service of building Identity and authority

How the myth of "Aryan" can be used for making power and identity


·                Europeans:  for rejecting the  oppression of churches and  old beliefs  of Judo-Christian

·                Indians: for returning to the past, confront with the foreigners and as a weapons for Leaping the "Non-touchable"

·                Iranians: for finding the former identity and rejecting the Arab influence

·                We: For finding or building old identity.

A Note:

When editing the Journal of Rowshani or Light, the publication of Enlighteners Association  Afghanistan in town of Goettingin , Germany, I was writing an Editorial in each issue entitled” Word of the Season”.

In One of these Word of the Season I did posted the following article which resulted to  a lot of  different reactions. I had to write in some detail about  the subject on that time.

However, the events and  the incidents which took place at the beginning o fthe twenty-first century, brought about a kind  of political crisis and spread chaos and virulence among those who were concerned about the developments of the country. The outcome of these crisis  drowned the  publication of Rowshani (Light) into its waves .

Now, after writing an article about the country's pre history entitled “ the document Indus-Helmand Civilization”,  I decided to come back to the issue and look at this myth from different angles.

Seddiq Rahpoe Tarzi



I created a land in which:

There are Ten months of Winter and Two months Summer

Big snake or dragon  and winter, has been created by Deva or Evil. (Vd. 1.2).

Ahura Mazda


Race of Aryan!

Sources and  roots?

Again the Season of putting questions for getting the  answers, which end up to other questions, has come.

This time I want to tackle the very past history of the place and time- more correct to say pose  questions- in which we had roots in and are shrouded in the mist of myth and reality.

All we remember is the fact  that at the beginning of the twentieth century, especially after the third decades of this century, we looked in the past for the detection of our Identity and we watched ourselves in the  large mirror of Aryan. This mirror was a by product of the European Orientalist in 18th century and the19th century in particular. This was done in the  space of thirty decades in which  so called Aryan race took the place of   Indo-European language. The so- called scientists of this trend changed it to  Indo German. Hitler who prayed to  God  for such a sacred food, used it as a power for solving the problem of the inferior race in the process of eradicating them from the face of  the earth.

Now,  I want to look at the theories and ideas which divide the right from the wrong and so to open the door for discussion, discourse and debates.


Here I would like, due to the lack of space, elaborate only  some important points. I hope that it would be the beginning of a scientific approach not, emotional, towards this end.

These theories, were emerged with the arrival of European scholars such as Sir William Jones, Whitney , Mueller and others to Asia. They reached to the conclusion that there are close links between different family language which they named it Indo- Europeans. Then it was misused for propagandizing as a super race of Aryan.

Discovery of Avesta by French scholar and linguist, Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron (7 Dec.1731-17 Jan. 1805) was the  first step in this path. Mueller, believes that he was an young adventurer. He translated and published it at 1771. This brought this discussion on a new peak. Since then, there was a lot of research about the source and origins of Aryan ethnic, according to Sa'di says, .. “Every body sees his picture in the water's looking glass”.

The compact is as:

1.      Theory of Indo-European and then Indo-German.

2.      Theory of North.

3.      Theory of Central Asia.

4.      Theory land of Norse  or the Arctic region.

5.      Theory Sapta Sindhava and so and so ...

According to this view, "Aryan" ,as an ethnic group lived in high land of  northern Europe. Their blood is pure and their language is older  than other languages. This area encompasses the mountains of Ural and  after crossing  the  north of Germany reaches to the bank of  Atlantic Ocean.

Other commentators regard the  Central Asia as the land of Aryan and put it around  Caspian Sea.

According to the theory of Arctic, the texts of Rgveda  and Avesta, which both  them are the same, shows that the Arctic is the cradle of Aryan ethnics.

The theory of Sindhava is based on the belief that the land  Aryan can not be outside India .

Orientalist themselves, for  rejecting these theories, put forward a lot of  arguments as big as the  mountain  of Himalaya. There is no place to mention them  here.

Therefore, anyone as mythic figure of Procrustes put this ideas on the  iron bed and cut or draw to  so to fit it in his framework.

The first question which comes into the mind is: Who were living here before the coming of these  migrants  or more properly invaders, who fled from the cold and long winter which was the  creature of devil and came to  the land of sun and moon -Avesta is full of the  beauty  descriptions- and how they lived? Who were we and how became WE.

I, as Mr. Osman said that it is better to make this discussion short before it changes to long one, want to quotes Albert Pike, form his  the book called, “Belief of Iran -Arian, according to Avesta”  and open the  door for  scientific and rational discussions rather than a caliche, as we say mind of Mullah, which thinks very narrowly.

When he discussed this language, say, ... .. Aria, the name for honored was not used just for  respected, but for all people. He then talk of  opponents or WE  and said, .. “Dasa or Dasyu which means enemy are opponents were the original residents and indigenous people who were more civilized than the nomadic invaders, were not obeyed the new religion and called rebellions.”

“Zarathustra, in the length of  Avesta, asking Ahura Mazda for destroying them.” He continues, “ Then the Brahmans for drawing border between themselves and others, were employed this word,,

This Word of Season were published in issue no. (14) Quarterly of Rowshani, Spring 1380/2991.



Roots and Background


Everybody sees his/her picture in the  water

As Peasant rain and launder sun



Myth which we pronounce it in Persian as Osturah  means distracted and useless, falsehood and story thoughts.

As we know, the word myth according to  Mehrdad Bahar, popular mythologist is a  .. Yi loan word, which has been  derived from Arabic language. In Arabic language is “An anecdotal and untrue narrative which has not  original,,

This  word takes its origin  from the Greek word Historya and means the review, analysis and history. Its root in Indo-European language formed as Vid . In Latin it is My-thus and in Greek, Muthos.

In European languages the word Myth recorded with different pronounces. The word from originates from the Greek word Muttos which means quotation, story, legend and word. This word stands against logic or Logos. Logic is reasoning conducted or assessed according to strict principles of validity and it as a kind of understand of a reality that must be paid to review and argument. For the incident that imbed in myth is not need to reasoning, logic and proof. With its cultural heritage both ancient and modern has a special place in culture of humanity.

The myth is such complex that its full entries  can not be discussed in this narrow space and to pay attention to all its aspects.

In this context, philosophers and scholars from different fields of knowledge  discussed  and offered a bulk of theses.

In  19th  century, some of researcher emphasized that myth is as real as facts.

In  the filed of Linguistics and anthropology, this argument, are surprisingly widespread form. Friedrich Max Mueller in his work called it  “Comparative Mythology call it “Silent and dumb language”.

 E. Cassirer in his work called “Philosophy of symbolic forms”  believes that the language  in its nature tend to create myth and legend then reasons.

 L. Strauss in his book called “Mythology” has achieved this vision that myth is not inherent grace and blessing of human, but for him it is an important achievement. Here, language and myth are two symbols of human expression.

Sigmund  Freud famous psychologist who saved man from the clutches of Jinn believes  that myth is  a "great eternal presence" in collective unconsciousness of all human race.

The prominent feature of the myth  is that it can not present a clear vision of historical phenomenon. However, another color of it  has a highly camouflage character, and change its color with every stances.

Expression of this word

The myth can be expressed as a mirror of dream symbols of human-being. The simplest definition of myth is:

Expression of human beliefs in early stage of social evolution. Later it taking her the color of sacred and sanctity.

The most interesting point in the essence and nature of myth is that for its acceptance which is full and filled with conflict and its incredible events are far away from wisdom and reasons, do not attempt or need to bring the proof.

That's why  Mircea Elidad commented that myth is, “An expression of sacred narratives that serve the religious man”

So clearly it should be stated that myths in their simplest expression, are a number of narratives about the gods, superior forces and human accidents of early time. Myths, as we know, are the crystallization of beliefs, habits, faiths and the rituals of human. This part of human vision, is more resistant  than other factor for changes, and on the same time are fundamental human culture. The hard life on that speck is so impassive that prevents the changes of organizations. But, it should not be forgotten that in the long term, to change slowly with the templates that are very hard life topsy break.

In the substrate of myths can be seen epics, legends, stories, fables, legends and fairy tales,  folklore and so and so. This point should be noted that in the myths should not seek for historic events. Demarcation lines should be clear between myth and history events.

Notice and attention to myths

It should, therefore, be noted that emphasis and attention to understand, study and analyze the myths is due to the painstaking work of the scientists from various disciplines of knowledge, in Europe in particular.

When the European scientists tried to  use the myth  as key to open the door of human society, in  line to its past time, began attention and notice to the myths .

Clear vision and deep thinking in this direction can be considered due to the Enlightenment age. It was sometimes possible that the outlook of human turned to rational  understanding and attitude. The basic causes are due to the reports  made by travelers and the discoveries of new horizons to the human knowledge.

Bernard le Bouyer de Fontenelle, French scholar  comparing  the Greek and Natives  of the North American myths, reached to the conclusion that there is a kind of fascination of human common universality existing in  different myths .

He called his work as, “The origin and  roots of legends and stories”, (1724).He argues that the roots of absurdity in myths are due to this fact that they reflect the faiths and beliefs of primitive communities.

These kind of researches paved slowly  the way for the studies of myths  and made clear guide for understanding the most fundamental element of human existence as: war and peace, life and death, truth and non truth, good and evil.

By the same token, Georg Grey, in the middle of the 19th  century, who was the governor of England in New Zealand in dealing with the Maori tribe had noticed that the members of this tribe, during their own arguments here and then, refer to their myths. In order to know more the culture of natives, first of all he learned their language for understanding  their myth better.

However, this was Giambattista Vico, the  thoughtful Italian anthropologist who, by writing a work called "Knowledge of Vico" (1725) ,opened the door of scientific study about myths.

In the beginning of the 19th century, adding motivation and sense of imagination links with language, paying attention to the language of the family of Indo-European entered a new area. Then it grows more to the study of comparative linguistic knowledge and its link to the history and philosophy. These kind of studies paved the way for knowing better the Myths of nature .

In this way, Friedrich Max Muller, the German orientalist who went to England and there  made a deep research on linguistics knowledge has a special place. His vision was recorded in his work called “Comparative Mythology”(1856). He found that the elements such as: Heaven, Sun and Dawn in different myths have a special place. He then, after more reviews, reached to this belief that in the course of time the original meaning of a word, what he called  the  Disease of language had been lost. Thus, from his perspective, myths are more the  natural phenomena reflector. Contrary to this, non-rational form of myths show just the  activities of gods, heroes, satan, giants and fairies.

In one  of Greek myths  Dawn was replaced by Daphne, and Sun of Dawn by Phoibos or Apollo.

Of course, it is necessary to have a profound review and explore profoundly this theme..

On the matter of  relationship between  history and myth one should take notice as:  both are looking to shed light on past situations, but, in history the events run in a  clear and documented framework. In  the essence of history, the  written  documents have high place. With these keys we can open the  hidden doors of historical events. The oldest of them had been written in stone or petrography. Difficult problem in this area lies that from Imperial Achaemenid to Kushanide, laid down a wide land which covers different languages and cultures.

For the tackling  the depth of this problem,we must look and refer to petrography of  Old Persian, Middle Persian, Parthians, Khwarezmian, Sogdian and Bactrian, which remains from i sixth century BC.. However, this should not look tight enough to this place. For a deeper understanding, we should study the petrography of  Babylon, Ilam, Aramaic, Greek and Sanskrit also.

A look at wide areas of our land

Whenever we want to put a look at the myth of our land - regardless of the  borders which had been shaped during the past two centuries - we should see an area covers in its  East and South East  the Valley of Sind, in North, Central Asia, including the rivers of Amo and Seer and in the West between two rivers of Tigris and the Euphrates or Mesopotamia. This land can be called the gift of big  rivers. In the banks and along these rivers, the magnificent civilizations emerged.

If we take into consideration the current political set ups ,they encompass: Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, Iran, India and Iraq. The width of this land from East to West is more than three thousand Km. It should not be forgotten that the effect of cultural influences does not confined in this framework and goes far far away.

It should be noted that the core of this civilization are Mesopotamia and Egypt. Later, it made profound effects on the growth of other people too. For this reason, we can see the signs of civilization on the face of all these parts . Signs of culture of West Asia can be seen in the valley of Sind, Chinese's Turkistan, Greek and Egypt  clearly.

Myth and reality in this part

In order to get knowledge and widespread recognition , we can use two sources for this:

1.      - Languages and myths. It can be called internal documents.

2 - Archaeological findings. This can be called external signs.

In the path of searching for knowledge about the past of this area”s myths, we should be considering the time when the people, who were talking in Indo-European language, entered in this part of the world.

Of course, this point should be noted that before the arrival of these people, a magnificent civilization by the people and residents  has been formed especially in the valley of Sind. According to Mehrdad e Bahar,  “...These... regions of South, Central and East even to Khwarazem river, the race Dravidian were living. There is a probability that Elamite belonged to this race.”, (Mehrdad e Bahar. p.401) in the covers.

Note: For more information, please read  my article entitled .. Helmand-Sind Civilization, the beginner of our history.

Still it must be noted that before the arrival of the Indo-European to this area, the presence of strong and influential culture of Elamite, Sumerian, Babylonian, and Assyrian was wide spread there.

Aria or Aryan so and so in Myths

First of all, it should be noted that the sources of myth in this area has many great cultural diversities. What  is closer to us, we can see in the context of religious poems as Veda and Avesta. These two poems are so close together that it can be called twin sisters.

As far as it is clear, Gherado Gnoli in his book, “The Idea of Iran:An Essay on its Origin”, during the debate on this issue, writes, “ Now, Airya- never appears in Gathas. It is present only in so-called Younger Avesta, particular in Yasts. In Gathas we only come across Airyaman (y.32.1, the correspondent of Vedic Aryaman- ... Here too, Anairya word comes to. In which the  ghosts of the victory of those peoples is evoked if the rites is not performed according to rules.” (P.32-34)

The significant point about this is that until now scholars have not achieved the root of this word.

We must not forget that  Gatas or Yasna had been composed in five parts. The term Gah means song. They are written in Avestan language. The interesting point is that Gata contrary to Rigveda a principle  have not reached to us as an origin text. In this long process it had been changed and edited many times.

Avesta for the first time had been brought to notice of Europeans by B. Brisson, French jurist and politician in (1590). However, in our own area it was Pour Dauod who due to the first World War could not left Germany for Iran. He, using rare sources in Germany, concentrated and focused to this work. Before his research, the knowledge about the Avesta did not exist to us. He filled the vacuum of four hundred years in his many stops in India and searching about Avesta. Thus Europeans have made us familiar with Avesta. Otherwise it was decaying in the coffers and boxes of old temples, and its songs just were heard in dark time prayer and had been hidden far from the eyes of the  people and researchers forever..

Similarities of  Veda and the Avesta

A clear example of this similarity are the words of  Yama in the Rig Veda and  Yima in Avesta. This word in Veda  means God of death and  in Avesta is the name of the first king.

Another example is the word Soma in Veda. This was a kind of plant which people used it for making a kind of intoxicated drink for Prayer ceremonies. This word changed in Avesta which was composed later  to Haoma.

Thus we came to this end that those who are trying to divid  Veda from Avesta  have  made an error. Of course from point of history Veda is more ancient.

The closeness of two languages are so  that you can change all text of Avesta to Veda by using phonetics rules. They are different dialectics of the same language.

According to  Phurel  these myths are very close to  Nors or North (the ancient language of the Scandinavian people of North Europe) and you can say that they are fossilized myths of Indo-European.

The term  of Arya has been comprised of different forms such as:

in Indian language is Arya in old Persian Arye in Middle Persian Ariya in Avesta recorded as Airiia.

In a simple look at these terms we can state that all these forms are the daughters of one mother.

Since we do not know the actual name of the place of this mother tongue, linguists used for it the word of Indo-European. This name has such flexibility that during the influences of German Racists  in the time of Nazis rule they changed it to Indo-German. After the failure of this system, once again they call it Indo-European.

An important point that should be noted is that the word Arya and its different forms had been used in the framework of linguistics science. For this cause they used Proto Indo-European as mother language.

Myths in the historical document

The term Aria was used for the first time in inscriptions which came down to us from Imperial  Hittite times. These were written in cuneiform language , Acadian language. From  (1887) onward, due to archaeological explores, more than three thousand pieces are discovered. This Empire was called Harrian. They were ruling in the  land called Hittite between the years 1400 to 1180 B.C. The exact name of this place was Uruhaatti or land of Hittite. The name of its Imperial Capital was Hattushash. This location is now a little village. The name of this village is Bogaz Koi and is located at 160 km. east of Ankara, the capital of Turkey. This land can be expanded to the territory what we call  Syria and Mesopotamia too.

Here, Indo-Harrian formed an aristocratic family. Thus some of their groups, instead of going toward East to India, went to Mesopotamia with  Harrian. Soon they were absorbed to the language and culture  of Harrian. Signs of their language  exist only in the names of their men, especially kings, such as Artatama. Of course, the name of their  Gods, such as:  Mitra and Indira and technical words such as taming the horse are also included in this category.


As  mentioned  above,  since linguists had not other name for this language they called it Indo-european language. With the discovery of remnants of the Imperial Hittite and tracing a lot of  more ancient element of  Indo-European language in it, they have to call it, Indo-Hittite to fold an extended area.


As we know it in this ancient myths, as in Avesta in the  first chapters of the Vendidad that means rejection and forsaking of Giant or Evil, we can find the following words:

  “Ahura Mazda tells Zarathushtra: I, created the first and best of places and habitations ...all material creation would have come to airyanəm vaje... There are ten months of winter there and two of summer and (even) those are (too) cold for water, for earth, for plants. It is the middle and the heart of winter, and (when) the winter ends there are many floods,”

This song can not pinpoint to a particular place.

About the  the exact original place of the Indo-European or Indo-Hittite  there are still a wide discussions. The archaeological data obtained from the research in culture Korgan  emphasis as:  according to this belief, their origin places, are steps of south Russia coast of  Dnieper river, North of Caucasus and the West of Ural.

Entering to our land

Groups of tribes of Indo-Hittite or Indo-European, by passing the mountains of Indo Kush (Black Mountain) entered to the North West of Indian in Panjab or five Rivers in second B.C .

Here  the natives people, who had a magnificent  civilization of Sind  faced. Rig Veda, calls were called Dasa or Dsyu.

This penetration and aggression was made in the course of different waves. This point should not be forgotten that these groups have different accents of same language. The distinction between “R” and “L” did not exist.

Later some of them went  to the West. Each of these tribes who had different dialects spoke the Indo-Hittite or Indo-European language.

Myth in the service of making Identity and Authority

According to Ernest Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) a German philosopher, myth are shaped for giving more force and influences to irrationality.

Dorthy M. Figueira says that the task of myth is to give more abilities to  Power for living in the framework of politics .

Enlightenment movement and myth

Sometimes in the fifteenth century, when the Religion-Political tyranny in Europe was in its peak, a group of Enlightenment's people considering the travelers diaries which reached from the East slowly, to get a new outlook. These informations were parallel with the new discoveries too. These kind of oriented info were full of myths and legends. At that time their religious institutions of Judo-Christian were faced a crisis of identity. The promised heaven of the next world was losing its influences and attractions. They tried to compare these orient myths with Judo-Christian thoughts. It was the right time in the 16th  century that scholars and philosophies faced with a lot of questions and tried to find a rational answers to them, not religious one which was losing the steam under the heavy burden of a painful reality and rigorous mind of Enlighten-men..

It urged the  philosophers and scholars to put that kind of questions which were lingering in their mind into their speeches and  writings too.

Among the first vanguards of this way of thinking were Montesquieu  (1689-1755 ), the French political philosopher and the Voltaire (1694-1778) the French writer and poet.

Both, especially the Voltaire considering the ideas of  myths in Poems of Vedic, put this issue as: These religious poems due to their old time compositions are older than the book of Old Testament. Due to this fact the prominent position, of Jews and the authenticity of Judo-Christian religions were put under the sign of the great question.

This line of exploitation of the myth for rejecting the religious belief, which was under the tyranny rule of church, continued. In this category, Voltaire  went so far that he clearly stated that humans had had a Golden Age era.

In this context, a group of European authors and philosophers such as Kant, Hereder and W. Jones carried out deep discussions . Meanwhile, Jones the famous linguist with more than twenty-two languages he knew have got high position. He translated some part of Vedic poems which contained a lot of myths form Sanskrit language. He believes that genuine culture of Aryan has been corroded and damaged from within and only a decayed skin remained in the current culture  of India.

Surprisingly  many sections of this belief was rooted in myth and not based on what we call  the exact text.

The next steps, in 17th and 18th  centuries, this beliefs transferred form personnel area to mass sphere. Myth has such a  power which can lead form unconscious to the natural instincts. The Great nation have the  ability ,through using the myth, to put his marks on the sheet of history.

The myth of Aryan in Romanticism

At the end of the 18th  century, a new form of outlook was shaped in Europe. This vision was against the rationalism of the Enlightenment movement, and based on emotional thoughts. According to this beliefs feeling, opinion and strong imagination, are the motives for reaching to truth. They, for achieving the fact, were using illumination and intuition. They  called it as a phenomenon which the fact spark suddenly in the mind of the  researcher an sparkle and pave the way for discovery and witnesses.

They, unlike Enlighteners, who believed that the myth is created by a personal  mind,  thought that it is created by mass. They believe the myth has came out of nature and goes back and joins  Holy Spirit. Looking to the past to the Golden Time makes the  essence of this idea. Because of this fact the  myth is used as a  rare means for this end. Among these means, the Indian myths have a special place.

In this perspective, our famous scholars such as: Rousseau (1712-78) the French philosopher and writer, Schilling, and Schlegel (1767-1843) German romantic poet and critic are worth to mention. They believe the myths showing the  pure and refined conditions of the past and can be drawn the lines to the future.

Shelegel was so fascinated to myths that he proposed that since you do not have  it in  West, you must try to make the myths. He put some strange steps towards this end. He has expressed with full faith as, .. “It is better to go to the East (India) and bring her here.”

From Language to Race

          As it was learned,  the linguists after comparing the different languages, came to this conclusion that the  languages from Ireland to India, originated from tone language and is unique. Since there was no other name, they used  Indo-European. Due to recent discoveries there is a proposal to name it Indo-Hittite language. Linguists  believe that there is the  mother language which can be called pre-Indo-European or pre- Indo-Hittite .

At the 19th  century, the word Aryan language was designated as Indo-European language. Then it was confined to another Indo-European languages branches of our region.

In the same century, J.A.C de Gobineau (1816-82) French writer and anthropologist  and then H.S Chamberlain on the line and  views points of sheer and  strongly propaganda put forward the idea of Arian race as super one. At first in this circle, all those  were speaking the language Indo-European languages. He was arguing that all human achievements are due to their works and strives .On the other hand, they are super than Semitic, ( Relating to or denoting a family of languages that includes Hebrew, Arabic, and Aramaic and certain ancient languages such as Phoenician and Akkadian, constituting the main subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic family.) yellow Race (It worth to mention that the ideas of race are centuries old, it was not until the 19th century that attempts to systematize racial divisions were made. Ideas of supposed racial superiority and social competition reached their culmination in Nazi ideology of the 1930s and gave pseudoscientific justification to policies and attitudes of discrimination, exploitation, slavery, and extermination. Theories of race asserting a link between racial type and intelligence are now discredited completely. Scientifically it is accepted as obvious that there are subdivisions of the human species, but it is also clear that genetic variation between individuals of the same race can be as great as that between members of different races. In recent years, the associations of race with the ideologies and theories that grew out of the work of 19th-century anthropologists and physiologists has led to the use of the word race itself becoming problematic. Although still used in general contexts as: race relations, racial equality and so. It is now often replaced by other words that are less emotionally charged, such as people or community and blacks.

Search of Myth in Religions

Gobineau, in order to make and put deep influences on the minds, tried to find Aryan in the teachings of religions of Judo-Christian as Bible. He considered the racial division in Genesis 9:20-27 as Figueria noted reached to this result: “He found  segregation in Noah sons. Based on the belief that his son Ham who saw is father in a state of drunkenness and naked made  anger him. His father sent him for exile to Africa to become dark skinned. Thus  according to Old Testament, sin was related  with dark color or race. The children of Sham other son of Noah during intercourse with other races got yellow color. Gobineau believes that the children of Noah's  son named Japheth were of pure blood of Aryan.”(P. 69)

Thus the ideas of  races entered in the belief that Judo-Christian from the beginning and lo discrimination was based on color of mankind .

In Islamic belief, and that interpretation of history, mentions   the story of Noah in another way. In this  doctrines, Canaan, one of his sons, made a rebellious act against father and did not join him and was drowned. In the end, the storm was passed and Noah found world empty of people and animals and distributed it to his sons  Sam, Japheth and Ham. According to the Dehkhoda, “Iraq and Khorasan  and Hejaz and Yemen and Iranshahr was given to Sam,  Saqalab (Eastern Turks) and Yajoj and Majoj (Some mythical people in west China) to China given to Japheth.,,

In narrative of these stories , we can trace  two important points: according to   Judo-Christian we can see race discrimination. The same Japheth is true for Islamic belief, left for  China and became yellow. However, I believe this myth crystallizes conditions in which authoritarian rulers  divide  all of their territories  between his sons.

Interesting point is that Gobineau considers that,  among speakers of Indo-European languages, the people of  North and Germans have the most pure race and blood.

In perspective Gobineau had given special place in his work for that Whites. He believes that  among whites, its Aryan  are at the height of civilization.  They  fell down when they have mixed with the uncleaned bloods. Among the unclean blood Jews are the Worst of all.

This is, however, Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more regularly known as Max Müller  a German philologist and orientalogist who as a tendency of sentiment raises the myth of Veda to emotional heaven. He has even stated,” “ Our Veda means our ancestors”. But, he soon realized that part of the poem as he express is,  "Childish, vulgar and extremely banal and meaningless", but this vision had been drown in his racist view points.

Then he misused the linguistic knowledge in this respect too much for exploiting  and designing  Aryan language. He quickly get out of the language categories and absorbed to the superiority of so called Aryan race. He, according to this line of thought, called Africans, "Native American, Turanians and Semitic people,  “Real beast race.” and calls them Inferior Race.

This man, in his later vision and viewpoints states that this goal was only and only to use Aryan word just in the framework not the race. However, this poisonous thoughts put its influences long before. This was so effective later that a lot of people followed  suit.

The search which was started for finding  the roots of ancient religion and language, was  drown in hell of Aryan master race and flamed a huge fire of race cleansing.

Nietzsche (1844-1900) and his idea of Superman in German , der Übermensch, has a special position in this movement. He put a lot big steps on this way. He had a major role in spreading of this myth.

I believe that the main case of Nietzsche's interest to Gata, the oldest part of Avesta which some scholars believe it was composed by Zarathustra himself, is in line to believe that the course of history and time  is going as a circle and cycle in which the incidents permanently flows and runs with some changes.

He himself believed in Eternal Recurrence, and thus liked this idea which was expressed in Gata too.

This idea, on  one hand, was against the text of  Judo-Christian accounts and on the other was more old. Nietzsche knew the falsehood  of moralities and liked the old one.

Nietzsche wanted to use and take advantage of the ideas of myth for shaping a group of New Aristocracy or Rulers. He believed that we can grow the  species by two ways: First taming them, such as beast in the  zoo and human in church and second by producing  pure and special race.

Thus he made the most basic ideology for the exploitation of Nazi by using the myth. Later, others, using this ideas, developed the movements of Fascism and Nazism.

Aryans and Jews

From the early time which European scholars got familiar with stories coming out from the discovery of Veda, which belonged to mysterious India, one important advantage that these findings brought with was that the  teaching Moses or Jews lost the mantle of sacredness. This belief was formed and spread with high speed that orders of Moses which embedded in the Old Testament  had been a deviation from the  united and pure old thoughts of the past ..

We can say that it was the starting points of Anti-Semitism traditional account.

In this context, those who were trying to criticize the teaching of religious belief, used it with all forces.

Chamberlain attacks  Jews very clearly. He argues that the Aryan heritage of German through the aggressions of Mongols and Jews was destroyed completely. The  Aryan religion,  due to  the attack of Roman church removed and paved the the ways for materialism of  Semitic moralities.

They were drawing an ideal image of golden society of Aryans and compare it with current life which was the outcome of the Judo-Christian religion teachings, and reject it on first hand.

They got this impressions form the songs of Vida that the gods Aryan, were the en-lighted, honest and kind. There was no way in their cruelty. They treat others,  as their children not slaves.

Contrary to the teachings of Judo-Christian, the Arians did not fear from their gods,  for they were not  Tyrants or Avengers. Aryans did  believe in eternity, without beginning or ending of the universe. They believed that life follows like the current of ocean and changing occurs in it as eternal waves. Aryans thought that the essence of  nature is in their hearts. They did not account the Death and Life as a personal fact, but as an integral part of the world. Some of them went so far that regarded Jesus as Aryans  and also provide some reason for it.

The interesting point is that these ideas expressed in a such a time that they did not have full access to the  text of Veda . They just  heard the stories that were told by adventurers coming from the East.

As we know  anti-semitism was parallel with super race beliefs. In the line of modern struggles they regarded Jews who are destroying the  culture and are very lower race.

The reason should be seen in the suffering situations which  Jews went through them in Europe. In this case, their status in society was marginalized. This is clear:that those  people,who due to different reasons such as religion, race, skin color and so and so ...had been cast away from society, came close together for their survival and are indispensable to economic works. Jews were in such a situation. They ,out of different economical activities, chose the  financial sector. Since they had made a lot of strives on this section,  achieved a lot of successes. This fact, flamed the fire of jealously into  the hearts of  who were faced  failures in this area.

The  start points of this battle reaches to the so called documents of Protocols of the Elders of Zion. In these documents it is recored that  we will use all  available means for eliminating of Christian. If such efforts did not working normally, we must destroy all of the religion centers. Later, it was cleared that these documents were made by secret police apparatus  of Russia after her  defeat by Japan (1905). These document was inspired from a satire and humor Novel which was written in (1864) against the Napoleon III. Later, other kind of pressures continued. It was crystallized in the attacks on homes and shops and the burning of the  Jews and continued in all  centuries until the middle of the twenty century. This bloody fact had been seen over the altar burning furnaces of Auschwitz in the time of Hitler rule in Germany.

Now that another opportunity for destruction is not feasible, however, we continue to see that this kind of hateful attitude lingering in the mind of many people who are not seeking to see the depth of the problems. Looking  deeply into different events which occur in our world, we can see the long tail of it very clearly.

From scattered text to more separate thoughts

 Until the middle of the 19th century in Europe these view points were confined in the framework of discussions for tracing more ancient identity which were more older than Judo-Christian thoughts. Interesting point in this matter lies in this fact that many of those were referencing to  Vedas poems,although never had access to the original text. Gobinuae who talked a lot about Vedas based his ideas on the second-hand text. For examples of Lassen. Nietzsche, was using the  highly improper translation of the legal text which was called Manu. For  Chamberlain the originality of a text of these poems was not important. What was  great important to him was making myths and  building legends. This line lived up for a long time. Thus long before of  discovery of the  Vedas text and its translation , the myth of Aryan dominated and filled many minds. Thus the scattered text brought a distracted ideas and made a devastating and catastrophic effect before it die down. Surprisingly  there are still loops of material from this rotten, must eat.

Myths in the Service of Nationalism

At the beginning of  the16th century the Christian Roman Empire under the pressure of religious despotism on the one hand and the spread of Christian religion different sects on the other entered the  down spiral. This fact paved the ways for spreading national awareness. Then form the inside of this movement, the national government was shaped and  what we call now Nation-State was formed.

In this context, nationalist intellectuals tired to trace or shape national identities form the old identities.

This kind of work form was based  on the tribal identity. They, for getting and grasping  these  kind of identities, began to search history as the sources of food of thoughts.

Within this framework, the famous writings of the historian, Roman state-man and writer (C. Tacitus 56-120 AD) as the form of almanac and history were very attractive. Among different writings on the subject , his book , Germania,became the big   source for most researchers  who wanted to trace or make identity. This book which was published at the second  century, was described the German tribes who were living in the northern part of Roman  Empire.

Tacitus shed a deep light on the  simple, primitive and immature life of these tribes. In the course of comparing with the Roman  Empire, found it ideal society and called its members the first savage nobles in Europe.

Later, the national intellectual theorist, in 15th  and 16th  centuries, extracts from that thoughts the ideas of supper race . These  poisonous  ideas dominated all 19th and the first half of 20th centuries and flamed the ideology of racial superiority very badly.

Sacrifice in the Temple all Germans

This movement was founded after the battle against Napoleon at the beginning of 19th  century, for the unity of  the language of German people, including Hollanders and Flanders.  Germans thought that their languages are not a separate one but an accent of German language and had been shaped by German  nationalists. The only target of this movement was to create a Great Germany. They wanted to bring  together the German speaking people and even the Scandinavians too.

This idea were accompanied after the  expanding and spreading of the racist views of people such as Gobineau and others who thought in the line with race, superiority and encouraging expansionism .

As it was evaluated, the basic idea for organizing the Aryan super ideology in Europe, and especially in Germany in 19th century, with the flame of high fever nationalism,  would follow two goals:

Search for old language and religion and trace the ancient  and distant past by studying sources such Sanskrit language. Due to this fact, attention to linguistic science got a big priority  and paved the way for Renaissance of  the East. The discovery  Indo-European language which Germany  then called it  Indo-German, shows the hottest and peak point of this fever.

In this context, works such as: “Space and People in World War”, written by Prof. Haushoferr and  Banse could be cited. Then  the book of Grimm called “People without Borders”  etc. which were published in second decade of 20th  century deserve consideration. In this process  more than six thousand books about Aryans were alone in  the library of Strasbourg. This, provided background for  dangerous ideas which brought about a lot of sacrifices ..

These views were caught and intercepted by Hitler and Nazis and became the basic policy of German government policy for the destruction and elimination of other people who were not Aryans.

This attitude provides the  fields of action for Hitler. He first of all occupied Austria and then under the pretext of helping German speaking people in Czech and Slovak, captured Poland. This was the beginning of World War II.

At the end of this sad and catastrophic event, Germany not only has not found more open space, but due to the huge human suffering, lost her former lands. Thus the Great Germany became the Minor Germany. Another human and  tragic catastrophe was the great migration of Germans form the East of Europe.

Thus we are eyewitness to the fact that how myth, not only creates a false identity, but paves the filed for destruction. This will provide  us,  living in the modern world and searching for making or finding an identity for us,  great lesson.

Exploitation of myth in other Ways

The  place of this myth in India

In the 18th century, along with growing social awareness in India, they exploited the myth  of Aryan which  is the essence of  Vedic poems for other means. This time, for building a new identity.

 Raja Rammohan Roy who lived in the end of 18th century and the beginning of 19th century , for purifying the  Hinduism,promote the integration of this belief said: God is unique.  The worshiping of Idols has not any way in it and other religion ceremonies are out of date.

He  established the  institute of Brhma Smaj for reaching his targets. This can be seen as a reaction against the presence of aliens on the one hand and the domination men over women, on the other hand. The way that we know the position of women in the old traditions of India had a high place.

The other familiar face in this context is Dayanand Sraswati. He made a lot of strives by founding Arya Samaj in the year (1825).

He also rejected idol worship, because he was thinking that it is the  foundation of political slavery in India. His thought that the best way for finding identity is to go back to  Aryan values which imbedded in the Vedas. He named this mythical time as "Aryan Golden Age". However, during this movement, at the same time, high and clear questions about this return  raised fiercely.

Meanwhile, Mahadef Govind Ranande who was a well known judge got a high position and  had a special place. He put a lot of questions  about how to turn back to the  Golden Time  such as:

 “The people for  this request of turning back to past have been sunk in the sea of questions ... Can we turn back to the old behaviors in which the most top stratum of our society, to were doing a lot of down grad acts ? Back to eating of animal meat, drinking poisonous herbs   poisoned all of our plants and animals? Going back on the wrong doing between female and male Rishi (Is a Sanskrit word which means Hindu saint and saga. T.)? Going back again to all sacrifices of  animals and even humans for Gods? Going back to time in which the liveing widows were burnt with their death  husbands ? Do we sacrifice once again  men and women for bringing down the stormy waves of sea? Do we again hunt the  people who belong to lower cast or as they being called untouchable and unclean?”

Untouchables rise up their Hands!

As we have seen, the European enlightenment movement, Orientalist, followers of Romanticism myth making, linguistics and, last but not least, Hindus  each one on their turn used the  myths of Aryan and put it in their own moulds  and made so called facts from false. This false variant went so deep in the beliefs of people which, although a lot of new facts discovered, still lives on.

In this process, the awareness that the  word  Aryan means the super and Dasa means the inferior race, were disputed time and again . Towards its rejection or acceptance a huge amount of   arguments as big as Himalayan mountain were put forward.

In India at the beginning of 19th  century, anew movement had taken shape  among the lower classes of society or untouchables. This debates were so high and intense Gandhi called them Children of God.

Jotiba Govind Phule (1828-1890) ,who belonged to the Untouchable cast, was born. In Sanskrit language they were called Shudra. He, from view point of social cast, belonged to the gardeners. They were called Untouchable too. But, however, he was  able to pass through high school, which was run by  group of Scotch Christians, and achieved higher education.

He later became one of the most passionate supporters of the Untouchable and the farmers .

He, in the course of fierce struggles for human rights and freedoms again and again turned to the thoughts of  the past. This time, he used the  myth in turn around.

He began with the argument that Aryans were foreign savages who have raided the country. They brought the powerful, origin and harmonious people into the bounds of slavery. They were divide,as social institutions, into different casts. They put part of the people into the bottom of social pyramid and by using the verses of Veda, closed the door of social changes on them.

He argued that the rule of Great Britain is a kind of God blessings for the liberation  of Untouchables form the  yoke of Aryans slavery. He, for promoting his ideas, took refuge in the other myth. It was the  myth of Bali. In this myth Bali was a king and royal symbol of the peasant's feelings. Based on this myth, Bali was deceived by a conspirator boy of Brahman. He made a trick and brought down him from the royal power. Later, this conspirator  occupied the crown. According to this myth, Bali had lived before the assault of he Aryans and was a fair ruler.

His considered the peasants, tribals  and untouchables as the true and original Indian people.

It is interesting that he had talked about Non-Aryan Golden Age. His directed his heavy blows towards Brahmanic prejudice and narrow minded view points. He even believes that the poems of Veda is an unconscious deviation form of public conscience. He thinks that struggle against new ideas and  modern  values  of Europe, under the pretext of patriotism, is an effort for  keeping the continuation of upper class  superiority.


Some nationalistic groups in India believe that all ancient culture in this country belonged to pre-Aryan time. These categories are as follows:

1 - All kind of idol worship.

2 – Ceremonies of common prayer for idols, including drawing a red line or putting a red spot on forehead.

3 – Beliefs in Spirit and  reincarnation or rebirth of souls.

4 - Set calendar  day based on lunar time.

5 – All types of animal worships.

6 – Worshiping of some organs, particularly genital one.

7 - the presence of God in the mirror all entities.

Briefly in  the book, “History of  Indian People Culture” which is  edited by R. S. Majumdar in its  first volume there is a debate about the Era  of Veda. One can read , “Myths and legends of gods and heroes which we can find among the people who speaking  Dravidian and Austry (It is a  group of languages that are spokenby the people from the south India to South East Asia   . T.) existed long before the  coming of  Aryans (1500 BC).It is interesting that these languages  were out of their influences and remained safe. Then they  entered the language of Aryan... We see these kind of  gods and heroes and heroic actions in Purana very clearly. ...These are  witness to the presence of these beliefs in pre - Aryan and in the  poems and language of Aryan.

The Presence of Aryan Myth  in Iran

In the same 19th and 20th centuries the circle of these ideas got wider and wider.

In Iran they turned their face to  the past too. These efforts were directed for  searching  the  Original  Identity. This line was following the causes of  backwardness. Social scholars and intellectuals of the  country were searching the  way out of tyranny and backwardness and tried to find answer in pre Islamic period. The nationalist way of thinking dominated all the literary structure, cultural and political actions especially the Constitutional Movement. In this context, turning to the era of the Ancient time got a  special place.

Europeans had done a lot of work in this field long time ago. The word Aryan as a kind of  magnet absorbed a lot of minds. This term which under the pressure of Islamic teaching was hidden in their unconscious, put its head out like a dragon.

Belief in the pure race of Aryan fever-soaked delirium captured the minds of all extreme nationalists. Darius Ashouri ,who studied this case,  says as, “This sense was accompanied with a deep hate for every thing  that belonged to the Arab race and culture. On the other hand, whatever belonged to the pre-Islamic past time, were given high color and glory.”

The peak of this movement was recorded between the First and Second World Wars, when both Rezas, the father and the son were ruling Iran.

This acceptance was so hot that according to Mattis Kuentzel, author of History of  German and Iran in same Fate,  some clergies called Hitler as the descendant of the Prophet of Islam in the holy city of Qum in  Iran. Some of them took so radical stance that called him Hidden Imam.

At this atmosphere Arianism was so hot and warm that the King of Iran issued a decree and changed the name of  Persian to Iran(1935) . Then the  king of Iran put the words of  Arya Mehr or the Sun of Arya as his title.

Our look at this myth

As it was expressed, with the growth of ethnic and national consciousness in Europe after 18th century, the field was readied for the  shaping of national governments.

This process, which had links closely with the formation of modern civil society spread to other lands slowly. At the end of the day it crept to our region too.

Our country, in the second half of 19th  century, after the inner struggles between different rivals of political power diminished and subsided and a time of relative calm prevailed. This kind of settlement had close relations with the Big Game which was played between the super powers of that time, namely Britain and the Russians.

After the second Anglo-Afghan war (1880) the conditions for shaping the central government-although it was formal- was provided.

Nationalism, a wave of grasping ancient history

After that different  parts of this land, under severe pressure, as Louis Dupree called it,  “Internal Imperialism”,  were joined together and the borders marked its territory, the relative growth ground for the formation of political structure was provided. At the beginning of 20th  century, which was associated with social reforms, the windows for looking towards the new world, were opened and formation of  the national sense took shape, step by step.

Some  believe that the revolutions in America and France is the starting point of ideas as we   knew nationalism. They believe that the 19th  century is the  nationalism period of Europe and 20th  century that of Asia.

As we know, the essence of the nationalist perspective, is the question of identity that later makes  the national identity. We ought to remember that nationalism is a new phenomenon of Modern time. The exact identity of this is person's loyalty and dedication and even personal sacrifices to the national government, than to kin, blood, ethnics, and local relations.

This was the start point of the formation of a nationalist vision which its main target was the full independence.

Independence was the peak point of nationalism. During two decades of work for spreading new ideas in  line of  achieving independence, the nexus of national ideas were brought by political exiles who were returned from abroad. It must be stated that this movement was not , of course, an isolated one. It had close connections with events which were occurring in our region.

It is a pity that the decades after independence, which was a pre conditions for reintegrations of the new structures, were very short

With the beginning of the third decade of the 20th  century, after which the government achieved relative calm, and attention was concentrated to political pragmatism and avoiding hasty reforms, once again the national feeling made its way.

This time the issue of national identity took a high priority among top  officials and rulers of the country.

Important issue is that there are very thin line, fragile and delicate lines between nationalistic ambitions and ideas of ethic superiority, chauvinism. Whenever there is a community with multi  ethics and multicultural shads and due to different causes has not formed a nation, its necessary to pay deep attention to this category of political acts. Since there exist a strong social relations of clans and ethics, emphasis on the line of  superiority of a dominant ethic is very dangerous and sows the seeds of future social conflicts. As we knew national unity, is the outcome of a long and full of zigzag process of social, economic and cultural development and need a long and painstaking efforts. In this context, what is very important and significant is a Social Contract in which the chiefs of all ethnic groups, reach to an agreement. In this context, the good will of leaders  with institutionalization of democratic system structure in which the role of public participation is an essential, guarantee this process form deviations.

In line for searching an identity, as we seen in Europe of 18th century, here, too, the faces were turned to history, especially the oldest one. It is not without reason that the base of   Kabul Literary Society (1931) was laid down on the basis of this attitude. Then more attention was paid to the department of history.

Here, the study and research on of linguistic and deliberation to  poems of Veda and Avesta, which had been forgotten by ourselves, and European reformers for getting a document in the course of rejecting the Judo-Christian teaching and putting Human in the center of all entity and being, were ready made materials for us.

This process which started with the beginning of 20th  century, after a brief stop, came out again in the 30s of 20th the century. This was coincided with a time in which the hot fever of nationalism in Europe to delirium supremacy of Aryan in Germany. It is a pity that it put all discourse in its shadow.

Willingness for having close relations with Germany  began in when the  families, who were sent  to exile Afghan Amir, Abdol Rahman ,were pardoned by his son, Amir Habib Ollah (1902),and returned to the country. Since they were  familiar with modern life they have got the  attention  of Amir. He liked  the new life and wanted to get conversant with its achievements. We can  classify and divide them into two groups. One under the influence of  Turkish -Germany ideas, and the other Indian- English.

This situation, along with ideas of independence, paved the way for complete freedom. During the third Anglo-Afghan battle, and after then, we were faced with choosing among the two evils. Having close relations with England or Russia which had been changed to Soviet Union.

The presence of the devotee of Turkish-German, in the core of this movement on the one hand, and the increasing influence of Germany at the global level on the other , accompanied with abhorrence and hate towards England and Russia, plus the fact that Germany had not yet showed its face of chauvinism , gave a big chance for German's influence.

The Outlook of our Scholars on this Subject

After  the waves of crisis, caused by the collapse of king Amanollah's reforms  and a short period of chaos due to therule  of Kalakani steamed down, gradual transformation took place. Afghan intellectuals, who were spared from the sword of purges and the subsequent treatment , had gathered in the Kabul22”s Literary Society  .(1031). As it was said, looking at the past and open an access  and  making national identity comprised the top position and place in the work  of this organization. Famous figures in this institution at the time among others were : Ghobar. Mostaghni, Nazhey, Ghuya and Juya and so on so forth.

Under these circumstances , Hashem the Chancellor, tried his best to keep  the next king,Zahir, in isolation, and gave high chance to the young figures of his family for entering politics. He put the search and making of identity work in a high agenda.

Looking to these aims , a special department for the study of history was formed in this literary institution. This post  were offered to Ali Ahmad Kohzad. Ludwig W. Adamec in his book under the title of  “ A biographical Dictionary of Contemporary Afghanistan”(1987) wrote as, “Worked with French Archaeological Delegation under Mr. Hackin for many years...Deputy Director of Pashto Tolana (Association)...Contributed to writing of pre-Islamic Afghan history to create a basis for an Afghan nationalist ideology.,

He worked  as President of Association of History (1956-61) He, for publishing the historical  research on the line of finding and making national  identity, founded the  Journal of Ariana. Thus the words of Ariana and Aryan and Arian and others, within the framework of national identity, took shape. Later the  name of Ariana Journal changed to Afghanistan.

He, in addition to his other writings, published a book named History of Afghanistan (1946) in two volumes. The second edition of this book was published by Kohzad Foundation (2002). It is interesting that in the back cover  of this book, the word  Ariana History, had been put in () bracket, which means the same. Simply talking, it shows that Ariana and Afghanistan are the same. It is not clear whether the original book had this one  or it has been added to the second edition. This job requires the discussions of the candidates separately.

 Our traditional History

As we know studying of the history of our land and region have been based on the review and exploration of European scholars. These findings have been available from half of 19th century. Moreover, our past were shrouded in aura of myths, story and legends. This traditional history dated from the end of  Sassanid, in which the semi-official historian put the historical events to record.  Khodai Nama or God Records is considered a  crystallization of these efforts.

After the spread of Islam, many editions of this book were  survived from the invasion of Arabs. Then it was translated by Rouzbeh or Ibn e Mqa'fa (757 AD) to Arabic language. Later, others made a  translation of this book from Arabic to Persian. All of them based on the translation of Ibn e Moqa'fa. They were in two style of prose and poetic too. Among these, the most important one is the Old Preface of Shah Nama or Letter of King. It was  ordered by Mansour Abdolrazzaq, the ruler of Khorasan (960 AD). Some believe that this is the basic foundation of Shahnamah  composed by  Ferdawsi from Tus (1010). As it is clear that the term King letter is a simple translation of Kohdai Namak or God of Letter. This book, in fact, is the  most extensive account  of  our traditional history. We know that the traditional history is composed  mostly of mythical figures than the historical ones.

This traditional history starts with  with Kings of Pishdadian dynasty or  Kiumors the founder of royal system or the first king. These can be called the mythical kings who rule on every things of this world. They were in constant battle with giants who were created by Ahriman or destructive sprit. Our traditional history, without a critical view point, is a combination of legends, myths and stories of gods, heroes and Lost Paradise.

Kohzad, who knows very well that  his pre-history and history are divided with written  language or inscription. He writes in the field as, “The history began by inscription” (p.14). Even he understood the story very well. For example he does speak of a story which were running among people as follows, “Among the people of  Pamir there is a famous story. According to this story human beings were living  around Pamir. Due to the explosion of a fire stone they were torn apart and people got out from four natural out- lets of Indus valleys, Seer river and Tarum and had been scattered in four sides.” (p. 39)

On the other hand, he based the big  part of his large two-volume books, according to his own  saying,  on Rig Veda and Avesta. But he never used the word of myth in this context.

He has written his works, under the influences of Gobineau, who wrote in accordance to the super race, the Aryan and Germanic in particulat,and Max Mueller, who conducted the study of language based on race, . He dedicated (310) pages of the book out of (428) pages to these myths. Then he describes Achaemenid  period and goes to Brahman Kings  of Kabul. But he never demarcate the line between myth and history. Thus he enters myth into history. This work made a big impact on  authors who did not look in it with a critical viewpoint.

The significant point is that Kohzad in the preface of this work (1325/1946) which was published exactly a year after the defeat of Nazism in Germany, Fascism in Italy and militarism in Japan, sensed that the space of Arianism not only changed, but a wave  of hate replaced it around the world. He by grasping this bitter fact, writes in it as, “...Fifteen years ago (1310/1931) by writing small articles was involved into the research of ancient Afghanistan deeply ... So if in the first chapters of the book we come across the name of Arya and Ariana, it is certainly I am not was thinking of racial theory or racism” (P. 9)

This view, remind us of  Max Mueller last words too. At the end of his life he cleared that using the  word of Arya was just in linguistic context not  the racial one.

Clearly it has been seen that how they use the myth as a mean for getting identity and power. It was the intention of the rulers for the consolidation of their power and  exploiting it for their own means.

Later,  Ghobar in his work called, “Afghanistan in the Course of History” (1346/1967) wrote a history book about our country. Only in the third part of the first chapter, entitled Historic Names writes, “Ariana was the oldest name of Afghanistan that from time of Avesta (thousand years BC) to the fifth century AD, in the length of thousand years, was applied to this land .” (p.9)

However, he in the  second chapter, "Afghanistan from a far Distance to the Sixth Century BC” in section First under the  title of  “Far Away Past”  writes as, “However, stories and myths of a distant past telling a lot of things about Afghanistan which we can find in the old history books  and in Shanamaha (Books of Kings) too.” He then telling the story as he himself put down as "Azhy Dahaka or  Zahak with Cobras" and stated that based on this myth he was  a Semitic king. He attacked to here and “Toppled down the rule of Pishdadis or Paradat dynasty of Afghanistan  in Balkh its capital. Thus  Jamshid or Yama the king of Balkh  lost his crown.” (p. 35)

Thus he talks of  mythology and does not change it to history. However, this fact rejects his  first vision. If the Kings of Pishdad's dynasty are  mythical one, and indeed are, so all of this period should be called  myth. Thus all stories which are told in  Rig Veda and Avesta are myths.

At the same time, Abdol Hai Habibi, who was the President of Historical Association, wrote a history book, called “Brief History of Afghanistan” (1346/1967).

He, in the section of The First Part of this work entitled, “A Glimpse on pre  History of Afghanistan" with a correct definition divide the pre-history from history. He write as, “The period that man had not ability for writing, was called pre- history.” (p.1)

He then talks very short about Indus Civilization and its wide circle influences. He writes about it, “But the discovered writing in Mohenjo  Daro and  Harappa not yielded yet. So we can not record it as historical stage.” (P.1)

 Next time in section of “Historical Afghanistan” he debates about  Aryan and puts the detailed info about Rig Veda and Avestan. He then discusses about dynasty of Kawis or Kayns, heros and " various gods. It is interesting to point out that he enters this period which belongs to traditional history  and fits it into real history. We can find this kind of contradictions in his own words as, “In the previous pages I put some very brief description of three civilization (!)- the exclamation or surprise mark belongs to me. T.) - in Afghanistan prehistory as Veda and Avesta time  and said that the starting date of our history is connected to two books of  Veda and Avesta.” (p. 27)

It is very strange and full of surprise that he says, “With Veda starts the history of  Aryan people .” (p. 8)

He clearly had expressed that history begins with inscription but here he calls these two books as written one. This fact is brighter than the sun that these two books were in the shape of oral heritages and then in the  sixth century AD was collected and record. For keeping it they made a special inscription for. On the other hand these survivors represent the myths of that time and can not be considered as historical events.

He writes as, “In Yasna 9 sentences of  (3) to (5) says: During the monarchy of Jam heat and coldness and aging and death and jealousy did not exist in the world.” (p.17)

 Look a little with open eyes to  these verses of Yasna! As we knew during two millions years which human-being had a difficult time of struggle for survival. Have they had such ideal time and society? This is a mythical expression which some one call it Lost Paradise or Golden Period. We can find such ideal and utopian society in various myths of different people. However, a historian does not have the right to change  myths into history. This kind of making false history deceives the mind of people and took them  away from really understanding the truths and facts.

Elsewhere we came across some argument that tries to search historical events in myths. According to his outlook, “In the time of Avesta's civilization! (Mark of surprise is of me. For we can Avestan culture but not Avestan civilization.) and stories of old books of pre Islamic period and after there are some  accounts  about dynasties and royal dignitaries and heros of  Aryan race. In the course of passing time they changed to myths, but we strive here to find their  historical aspects  as long as possible.” (p. 16)

First of all, it is the interesting point  that we can find history events in myths. The  second interesting point is that he tries to explore this fact in Veda myths.

The next efforts of Habibi is amazing. He is trying to find some Pashtu words in Veda myths. I just want to mention two examples :

A. .. Arian: ... In Pashto literature it  means principle and foundation or agriculture.” (P. 27)

B .. Vijah : ... So far in Kandahari Pashto it means Land and Place” (p. 28)

As far as it is clear that Habibi was a linguist. In this context only linguists have the authority to review it from a critical viewpoint and differentiate the facts form false.

Then he talks about  domination of aliens as Medes and Achaemenids.

In the row of those who have paid attention to the nation's history, is Seddiq Farhang. His work is entitled” Afghanistan in the Last Five Centuries (1988)” . He, in the course of classification of  the nation's history, speaks of the historical periods in Afghanistan and divides into  ancient period, Islamic and contemporary one.

He called Zardhasht period as the beginning of historical time! Then he talks about Goshtaseb, a ruler who converts  to Zardhasht religion. It is interesting that he never speaks of this  section  as a myth. (P. 23)

He  has  treated with caution the matter that, at that time the name of our country was Ariana. He writes about as, “ The term of Ariana which sometimes has called the name of this land  in ancient time accompanied with questions.” (P.31 )

It is interesting that then he discusses about the  inscriptions of  Darius I (c. 521- 486 BC). In it he can find the  name of our cities, among Aria (Herat). She does not mention that this fact separates the history from prehistory. But, he never says that Zardhasht age is a mythical time.

 Some writers had chances for discussions in this area via internet. It is not possible to discuss it all here .

You see that how some people from myths which have a wide door for interpretation, use them according to their own points and wants to watch their faces in its mirrors. Some one who do not find their faces in the mirror of myths, are trying to make it as Shelegel  created them.



 Bibliography of Persian books:

1 - Bahar, Mehrdad. "Iran's Research on the Mythology (and the first and second parts), Institute for Publishing Aware, the spring of 1375. Kh.

2 - Dustkhah, Jalil. "Avesta", the most ancient poems Iranians. Two volumes. Pearl Publications, thirteenth editions, 1387.

3 - Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar. "Dictionary" based on the latest carried out under the supervision of the Institute of Glossary Dehkhoda, University Press, Tehran. CDR. 2009.

4 – Habibi, Abdol Hay. "Brief History of Afghanistan." Publisher: Science Library, Peshawar, Pakistan, Third Edition, the 1377.

5 - Farhang, Mohammad Seddiq. "Afghanistan in the Past Five Centuries" Printing, Publisher: Publications luster, Mashhad, Iran.1371.

6 – Kohzad, Ali Ahmad. "History of Afghanistan" 2V. Publisher, Kohzad Cultural Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden. 1381 levels.


1.Adamec, W. Ludwig. "A Biographical Dictionary of Contemporary Afghanistan" Akademmische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz - Austria.1987.

2.Ashouri, Daruish. "Nietzche and Persia". An article in Encyclopedia Iranica.

3.Bryant, Edwin. "The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture" Oxford University Press, 2001.

4.Figueira, Dorthy. “Aryan, Jews, Brahman: Theorizing Authority through Myths and Identity." State University of New York Press, 2002.

5.Gnoli, Gherado. "The Idea of Iran: An Essay on its Origin" Instituto Italiano Per Il Medio Ed Estremo Oriente, Roma, 1989.

6.Kuentzel, Mattias. "Die Deutschen und der Iran Geschichte und Gegenwart einer verhängnisvollen Fruendchft" WJS Verlag, Berlin, 2009.

7.Talageri, G. Shrikant. "The Aryan Invasion Theory and Indian Nationalism". Voice of India, Rajkamal Electric Press, New Delhi, second Edition 2003.

8.Encyclopedia Iranica, 2010.

9.Encyclopedia Britannic, CDR, De Luxe edition, 2009.


Geottingen, Germany

Sonbola 14, 1389 / 05 September 2010.