In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate"
European Commission for
Understanding and Solidarity
Sittard, the Netherland
January 12, 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. I. Introduction 2
II. II. New Policy Draft Statement and a Temporary Program of Action
A. Synopsis of the past 4
B. B. Past and its perceptions 7
C. C. The Modality of democratic changes in Afghanistan 9
D. D. The result of the four decades of efforts 12
E. E. The New Afghanistan 14
F. F. A temporary program for the future 16
G. G. Objectives
1. Political 17
2. Social 19
3. Economic 20
4. Culture 22
5. 5. International 23
"In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate"
European Commission for Understanding and Solidarity (ECUS)
At this critical juncture that our country's history and destiny of the people of Afghanistan is being determined, members of the former Watan Party of Afghanistan, the largest nationwide political party in contemporary Afghanistan history, are in a disarray, disenfranchised, and have not been able to play their anticipated role.
The political party that joined us all together in the past was the Watan Party. With the collapse of the sovereignty of the Republic of Afghanistan on the 28th of April 1992, the party fragmented and from its remnants arose tens of societies and organizations, which were not in essence dissimilar from one another. These scattered initiatives were due to an absence of a precise political strategy. Therefore, the entire active and enlightened segments of society have been unable to come together. Unfortunately, some party leaders during the rule of the party were divided amongst themselves along ethnic as well as other lines. In addition to other factors, this division contributed to the collapse of the sovereignty and disintegration of the party. In the post-transfer-of-power especially ten years later, these leaders have regrettably lost the capacity to successfully lead the party and party members.
The activities of all the newly formed societies and organizations of the former Watan Party members are appreciated. In order to reach widespread understanding, we would like to share our views through this draft policy statement with all the former party members, organizations, societies, and sympathizers. We are profoundly supportive of all those friends and colleagues whose endeavors are aimed at establishment of genuine relations with others. All these attempts are in order to reach understanding, solidarity, and eventually a nationwide organization.
We, who have assigned ourselves the duty of bringing all the societies and organizations and individual party members together, believe the reunion and solidarity of the former Watan Party members is possible only on the basis of a broadminded perspective: 1) Perception of change in the internal, regional, as well as international situation; 2) honesty, collegial and patriotic principles; 3) leaving prejudices and prejudgments aside; 4) respect for the high national interests of our war torn and pillaged homeland and its tortured citizens. "We are expecting not ahead of time and not more than enough," goes the saying.
At this particular moment the lack of presence of the democratic forces for the settlement of the crisis of Afghanistan, there is a need for the active presence of pro-democracy and social justice advocates. The unity of these forces in a nationwide movement, can pave the way for them to play their necessary roles in ensuring peace, democracy, establishment of civil society, and reconstruction of the country. Through the unity of these elements, most of which have been overwhelmingly former Watan Party members, the road for manifestation of the prior aspirations of the people will be paved.
The temporary European Commission for Understanding and Solidarity (ECUS) could after lots of effort serve as one of the joining links among individuals former members; groups formed by former party members; other political, cultural organizations, and national personalities; as well as some of the former members of the central council of the party. In this regard, they could establish contacts, organize meetings, and go to the rank and file of the party and take active part in the discourse of perspectives.
Similar commissions have been formed in different countries that are carrying forward the process of dialogue and understanding.
After organizing numerous meetings and preparing numerous reports, the European Commission concludes that in light of the past experiences it should draft a new policy statement that could meet the present-day needs, give a critical analysis of the past, and broaden the horizon for future activities.
This initial report is a concise review of the ideology represented by the Watan Party. The report's objective as a temporary program, is prepared for is to make use of the past experience and not rehabilitate it. This draft is based on statements, proclamations, resolutions and personal views expressed by the former party members, its supporters and sympathizers.
We believe the former party members without prejudice of their present political, organizational persuasions or geographic location; vis-à-vis commissions of understanding and solidarity can as soon as possible hold meetings on the basis of inclusion and democracy. For the reunification of and nationwide reorganization, begin exchange of views and discuss this draft policy statement, enrich it so that way is paved for finalizing the statement and laying the foundation of a new organizational structure, acceptable for all and other issues related to a nationwide reorganization and legitimizing the work already began.
We firmly believe future activities should consider past experience and more emphasis be put on creating understanding. Due to the creation of political organizations without deep understanding would be of more of a short term political maneuvers and in reality downgrades a political organization to the level of ordinary tribal council that cannot solve today's or tomorrow's problems. We should not forget that lack of understanding in our movement destroyed the work of a generation and dried down the three that was watered by the blood of tens of thousands of our patriots.
New Policy Draft Statement and a Temporary Program of Action
Synopsis of the past
Afghans were the first people who in the beginning of the twentieth century, broke the chain of colonialism in Asia and took great steps towards progress and changes. Afghanistan was turned into a model country in Asia, which enjoyed special respect, and credibility in the region and the world. Progressive efforts by the new strata of Afghan intelligentsia who, in Afghan history is named constitutionalists, inspired by the rapid changes in Europe and the anti-colonial movement in the Indian subcontinent and the world, in the period after the independence of the country in (1919), in order to alleviate the centuries-old underdevelopment of the country, was a successful beginning for bringing deep changes in the live of the people. It was in fact the torch lit by King Amanullah. But the storm of events stemmed from the "Great Game" that the geopolitical situation of Afghanistan had created and materialized in the body of Islamic fundamentalists this torch was temporarily killed and the country was driven into the dark once again.
After the Second World War that the world underwent deep changes, Afghan society would also not be sidelined from it. The process of decolonization and the resistance put by the newly independent countries against new colonialism, creation of socialist bloc and world-wide effort for improvement of standard of living of different nations, ensuring and spreading of the rights and democratic freedoms and social justice etc, have too had their effects on the progressive movement of our country too. The cold war as a phenomenon belonging to the period after the world war created a new alignment of political and social and military forces worldwide that had some sort of new world outlook that political movements all over the world came under its influence.
In the newly formed international atmosphere, after the war, in our country too certain changes came about such as formulation of socio- economic development plans and compilation of the new constitution etc that could take the country out of isolation. As a result the country entered into a new stage of social living and the progressive movement of our country entered into a qualitatively new stage.
Establishment of the Wish Zalmayun (Awakened Youth) movement (1945-1953), the National Democratic Party (1950-1953), The Watan Party (1949-1953), the People's Party (1950), the Secret Unity Party, Student Union of Kabul University and their respected media (e.g., Angaar monthly journal, Wolus, Watan, Neda-i Khalq, etc.)
Despite the police persecution and their suppression by the government, they played the prelude for the future nationwide political organizations.
Establishment of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) on January 1, 1965, that was later on named Watan Party is in fact a result of the socio- political developments of the 1950's that could be considered a lawful phenomenon in the continuation of the freedom and progressive movement of the people of Afghanistan for achieving democratic changes.
Preserving and strengthening of territorial integrity, national sovereignty and national unity, renovation of the society, democratizing of social life, profound socio-economic reforms, ensuring social justice, curtailing the privileges of the feudal aristocracy through the implementation of democratic land reform, support to the middle class and national entrepreneurs against landlords, foreign monopolies, and the such were on top of the program of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan.
Members of the PDPA with their patriotism, honesty and feeling of serving the people, selflessness and devotion, through parliament, media and organizing demonstrations and strikes etc., Played a decisive role in enlightenment of the people. In addition to that a large number of parties, organizations and other publications also functioned at this particular time.
The PDPA, after only 13 years, as a result of extremely complex domestic and regional situation and suspicious inner party movements, on 27 April 1978 came to power and prior to implementing a reform program, as a result of differences, open and secrete betrayals and non-stop foreign intrusion was driven to a defensive position and imposed upon a war of attrition and the burden of national and regional policies much beyond its capability, such as military interference by the erstwhile Soviet Union, and the policy of turning Afghanistan into a Vietnam by the USA were put on its shoulders. In spite of the fact that it resisted to all odds, at last as a result of international as well as domestic conspiracies it was forced to transfer the power to the so-called Mujahidin. While during its rule, in the struggle against foreign intrusion and fundamentalism, it had lost fifty thousand members, it disintegrated to the last member. In addition, the armed forces, the three organ powers of the state, along-with all the material and spiritual values were disintegrated and ruined. After the transfer of power, according to UN Commission on Human Right reports, two thousands party members were killed all over the country.
It is to be mentioned that the critical geopolitical situation of the country that put it at the center of attention of the players of the Great Game and Cold War, especially in the period after the collapse of the monarchy in July 1973 drove the country towards instability and crisis. Having come to power in the midst of this instability and crisis and at the peak of the Cold War, the PDPA did not have the capability to contain all the external interference's stemming from big international policies, although, with the introduction of policy of National Reconciliation, it introduced fundamental changes in its policies and outlook.
In the last decade of the twentieth century that the Great Game and Cold War, with the transfer of power on April 28, 1992 to the Mujahidin groups had imposed sovereignty of the religious fundamentalism on our people, which with the induction of the Taliban was brought to its peak, would motivate all Afghans, to do something, in-order to rescue the country from this dark period and archaic regime. It prompted everyone to get-together and raise the voice of the suppressed nation and defend the personality of the society that, as a result of the social diversion, was ruined. Therefore during the last ten years, Afghans made their best efforts to launching political organizations.
During this ten years also maximum reports and analysis have been made in explaining the events of the country during the twentieth century particularly during the last three decades. In all these enlightening works, efforts have been made to trace the roots of the bloody crisis of our country. Analysts and writers have tried to answer this question as to why the biggest collective effort in our history for introducing reforms ended with such a failure. That why endeavors of Afghans during the twentieth century for the renovation of their country, every-time, ends up with smoke, fire and blood and that every-time, paying a high price, the nation had to pass through a period of darkness. This question has always remained unanswered that the Cold War, for the rest of the world, was buried in the warm waters of the Island of Malta in 1989, but why it continued for Afghanistan until September 2001. It is also to be mentioned that it was only after the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001 that Mr. Tony Blair Prime Minister of Britain explicitly declared that "No more Great Games". What his ancestors, in competition with Russian Empire, had launched two centuries back and had continued till now had to be ended.
The biggest question everybody faced during this decade was that how to inspire the Afghan intelligentsia, who, as a result of the international and internal conspiracies, were disillusioned and dismayed, and pave the way for their reorganization. And more importantly, how and on what to base the new organizations and so on.
The crisis of the last three decades particularly the last ten years, that happened parallel to the collapse of the smokescreen of the Cold War era, enriched the political experience and perceptions of Afghans. What the Afghan intelligentsia have achieved from these developments is freedom in judgment. This freedom in judgment has in fact opened the way so that thoughtful and intelligent Afghans, disregarding their past political persuasions, in-order to rescue their country, with new perceptions from Afghanistan and the world, to enter into the field of struggle and along-with new friends and allies raise common voice.
Past and its perceptions
Almost four decades ago when organized mental and political movements were launched in Afghan politics their main perception was that the socio- economic relations and political sovereignty in the country was that of feudal and pre-feudal (tribal- ethnic) relations. The society was divided into competing groups and strata that on the one side was poverty and underdevelopment and on the other side feudal lords, tribal chieftains comparators etc., and in order to rescue the country from underdevelopment and help it enter into the highway of progress there was a need to embark upon the path of democratic changes.
The polarized world divided into capitalist and socialist blocks, would naturally propose two different solutions or two approaches to the reformist forces. The first one was the way of democratic changes with capitalist orientation and the second way was democratic changes with socialist orientation.
The success of the erstwhile Soviet Union in the second world war and formation of the system of socialist countries especially the rapid socio-economic developments in the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s brought about this perception that the underdeveloped countries could with the technical and material supports from the Soviet Union, bypassing the capitalist developments, enter into the socialist phase of development. This was called the non-capitalist way of development with socialist orientation.
Based on the perception of that time the socialist system along-with the national freedom and anti-colonial movements and the labor movement of the capitalist world at large were in opposition to the international capitalist system. During the cold war this was the alignment of the international forces. This was called the principal subject of the struggle of that era.
The Soviet system was based on the perceptions, theories and philosophical, economic and social ideas formulated in nineteen century and the beginning of the twentieth century in Europe, in which a material class approach was prescribed for the social and economic phenomena which was in fact a certain framework for the assessment of political, economic and social issues that was aimed at creation of a egalitarian society and ensuring social justice, welfare of the toiling man and its main element was, in one word, man himself. His necessities, interests and progressive live.
The progressive forces in the third world countries, that considered the socialist oriented changes as a solution to the underdevelopment of their countries, made use of these perceptions and thoughts that had deep intellectual attraction, as a superstructure for their thoughts.
Therefore, the foundation stone of the perception of this movement was, first of all a collective approach internationally and nationally and secondly attaching prime importance to international solidarity. In this process international rivalry was attached more priority that with its resolution of the national conflict was to be accelerated.
The Modality of democratic changes in Afghanistan
The process of relatively democratic changes, in practice in our country was accompanied by complexities and difficulties. The three five year plans and the 1964 constitution could be considered the infrastructure of these changes in the economic political and social areas.
However, lack of people's participation in the administration of the country, complexities of the society and the ethnocentric approach on the part of the monarchy to the issues of the country on the one hand and un-enough economic and technical assistance by the donor countries and organizations on the other hand slowed the pace of developments in the country. This slowness in the development would make the progressive forces suspicious of the capitalist mood of development itself. This would open the way for the strengthening of the radical left forces and leftist reforms.
The July 1973 coup and the efforts made by the late President Daoud afterwards were in fact radical steps towards left and democratic reforms. Endeavors for land reforms and nationalization of banks etc were but some steps toward this end. But imbalances in his foreign and domestic policies, lack of success in the implementation of the 7 year plan, replacement of the unrealized democracy of the monarchy by suppression and oppression and, unexpectedly, instead of giving chance to the political forces to participate in the administration of the country it was suspended apparently to an unknown future but in reality it was blocked. While an armed struggle for the toppling of the regime was launched from Pakistan, the country was, step by step, driven backwards toward further instability and suppression.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA) that was formed after April 27, 1978, came with more drastic programs and accelerated the socialist oriented reforms. But lack of a single united and devoted leadership in compiling and implementing the reformist programs, endeavoring to monopolize the power, an imbalance approach towards national and ethnic issues and the predominant believes in the society, suppression of the opposition, lack of well study in adapting and haste in implementing the programs, ambitious attempts to neglecting the lawful stages of development and progress of the society etc created countless number of side effects and faced by the protest from the society. Implementing the land reform program is the best example.
The DRA that was formed under complicated internal and regional situation faced people's resistance on the one hand and organized sedition and foreign-armed provocations on the other. The regime did not have the capability to defend itself against all these odds. Therefore it, repeatedly asked the erstwhile Soviet Union for military help that paved the way for the large-scale military interference by the USSR. This interference was confronted with the regional and international forces, which as a result a full-fledged war was imposed on the country that resulted with grave and dangerous consequences.
After December 27, 1978 the military, political, economic and technical presence of the Soviet Union was expected to guarantee the implementation of the reforms. To this end the Party (PDPA) made new attempts to strengthening lawfulness, removing of political suppression, establishment and expansion of social organizations and paving the way for the participation of the people in political life of the society. Restructuring of the armed forces, strengthening of the defensive power of the country, giving direction to a reconsidered socio-economic programs and undoing the mistakes and diversions etc. But the continuation of the war and instability on the one hand and profound changes in the policies of the Soviet Union on the other hand, not only created obstacles on its way to set to fruition but pushed the country into a new phase that is characterized by the policy of National Reconciliation.
Parallel to the changes in the Soviet Union and the countries of the Socialist block and international understandings for ending the regional conflicts, the leadership of the DRA also reviewed the situation. With the proclamation of the policy of National Reconciliation a new constitution was adapted. An end was put to single party rule. Political freedoms were ensured through enforcement of new laws and new efforts were made for holding of inter-Afghan dialogue and ensuring national understanding and taking constructive measures in connection to the external sides of the issue of Afghanistan, signing of the Geneva accords and withdrawal of Soviet troops and preparing the ways and opportunities for the cessation of war and a peaceful settlement of the crisis of Afghanistan.
Holding of the second congress of the PDPA and changing its name to Watan Party and introducing fundamental changes in the constitution and program of the party and changing DRA to RA and independent defense of the country in the periods of the withdrawal of the soviet troops, etc, are all and all indicative of taking serious measures on the part of the then state sovereignty on the one hand and elevation of its position as a political reality and military power on the other. The National Reconciliation policy was in fact the declaration of the failure of the distance traversed after April 27, 1978 and embarking upon a new way.
Despite the mentioned measures, as a result of the continuation of the foreign plans for toppling the Afghan government and the fact that the opposition and their international backers had put the toppling of the Afghan government on top of its agenda, disregarding its consequences. Divisions and disarray in the leadership of the party and lack of single understanding from the policy of National Reconciliation in the leadership that led to military coup and ethnic approach to the ethnic and tribal issues which was exploited as a weakness of the government. In addition, despite the declaration of the National Reconciliation, the sovereignty of the party could not go beyond the framework of an ideological party. Moreover, the party maintained its militaristic character and being a state party. So, therefore with the weakening of the state it weakened and with its collapse it disintegrated. All this caused the party to be vertically and horizontally divided.
The disintegration of the Soviet Union and cessation of support by the Russian Federation to the Republic of Afghanistan even recognition by the former of the opposition to the government of Afghanistan, disruption of the process of National Reconciliation and the UN peace plan inside the country, not only removed the grounds for a peaceful settlement of the crisis of Afghanistan but ended up in a dramatic and scheming collapse of the sovereignty of the Republic of Afghanistan and the Watan Party and establishment of the sovereignty of the religious fundamentalist organizations. A motley group hostile to each other that elongated the bleeding tragedy of Afghanistan.
After the April 28, 1992 that the state power was transferred to the Mujahidin groups, as a result of their internal conflicts for the capture of power, the central government was practically dismantled and the country was divided into six centers of power (Kabul, Mazar-i Sharif, Herat, Jalalabad, Kandahar and Bamyan). The morale and material infrastructure of the state vanished. Almost 80 percent of the buildings of the Kabul city turned to ruins. While tens of thousands of innocent people were killed a new wave of immigration of the educated and expert Afghans and millions of others began. This heavy collective migration of Afghans that lasted almost one decade emptied the country from the experienced people. The foreign powers that were directing the wars in Afghanistan, in October 1994 launched another group of religious fundamentalists, composed of Afghan Mujahidin, Arab and Pakistani mercenaries, called the Taliban.
The Taliban government that, from its inception of power in Kabul till its collapse in October 1996, lasted five years was one of the most notorious and blackest periods in the history of Afghanistan and the world. Genocide and violation of human rights of women, locking the doors of schools hostility towards science, culture, art and whatever had relation with the light and enlightening was on top of their agenda. The prime target of the architects of the Taliban project was disculturing and destroying the moral and material achievements of our country.
The explosions in the US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998 and specially the terrorist attack of September 9, 2001, which was masterminded by the Arab faction of the Taliban, diverted the attention of the world to the gravity of the situation in Afghanistan. And their international backers the USA included, were not only prompted to withdraw their support to them but were made decisive to remove the terrorist establishment
In a nutshell, eighty years after the independence, entering the 21st century, Afghanistan was bleeding from thousands of cuts. While during ten years (April 1992- October 2001) had lost all its modern and historic achievements, entered the 21st century as semi-colony country suffering from millions of deaths, and disabled, 5 million refugee in 60 countries, 6 million displaced inside the country was breathing under a medieval regime that was led by foreigners.
The result of the four decades of efforts.
1. From the beginning up to the end the democratic programs were launched by the ruling circles and in all stages other forces interested in the reforms were not given chance to participate in the implementation of the programs. On the contrary, to monopolize the power, people's will was not taken into consideration, democracy was neglected and dependence on arms was preferred. In all cases the de facto allies were turned into the de facto enemies.
2. After the collapse of the monarchy that itself was never able to fill the vacuum in the constitution, its successors continued to rule without an acceptable constitution that could anticipate the people's political security and the confinements of the state authorities.
3. In the period after the 27 April 1978, more dependence on internationalism and international solidarity caused that nationalism even patriotism of the followers of this movement was to be questioned and the strong fortress of nationalism apparently fell to the hand of the reactionary forces.
4. As a result of two stages of land reforms and the continuation of war the feudal style sovereignty, in economic and political terms, is almost disappeared but its superstructure mentalities in the body of Taliban and other fundamentalist forces still continue to exist. What has replaced feudal system is warlordism (i.e., gunmen have taken the place of the lords and chieftains).
5. Players of the Cold War and the Great Game, by spending billions of dollars for the training of the anti-Afghan government groups and putting sophisticated weapons at their disposal, the interference with the internal affairs of Afghanistan that had began by Pakistan in 1975 for the de-stabilizing of president Daoud's regime, continued non-stop. The mentality of taking the revenge of Vietnam defeat on Soviets and non-reconciliation with the sovereignty of the Watan Party time and again prevented from reaching a political settlement and drove the country from instability to instability.
6. From the beginning to the end, the reformist forces, while having passion for their people and in the period after April 27, 1978, in their defense, lost their lives in groups of tens and hundreds, but the unrealistic positions vis-à-vis the people's religious believes caused that the gathering places of people (e.g., their worshipping places such as mosques, takias and khaniqas) fell totally in the hands of the fundamentalists.
7. Underdevelopment of Afghan society and lack of formation of Nation and inheriting a traditional state sovereignty caused ethnic and tribal tendencies and inclinations to appear in the body of the leaders and ruling circles.
8. Despite the fact that defending the interests of the toiling strata of society was on top of the agenda of the movement, but in practice these people were not its addressee, on the contrary it was the intelligentsia that remained its beneficiary. Therefore it lived away from the people.
9. During the years of war the forces involved in the confrontation were politically, militarily and ideologically polarized and unfortunately a moderate force that could bridge the gap and, by isolating the extremists on both the sides, pave the way for a settlement and reconciliation, couldn't emerge. Therefore moderates on both the sides remained hostage in the hand of the extremists.
The New Afghanistan
Suppression of Taliban and the developments that have taken place up-till date and reflected in the Bonn Agreement, in fact, somehow puts Afghanistan in the highway of democratic developments with a capitalist development. But this time the political, military presence and material and technical assistance by the western countries particularly the USA will be the guarantor of its implementation.
The most important point worthy of mentioning is that the forces participating at the present process is a combination of fundamentalists whose interest is not in deepening and expansion of the process, but on the contrary, sooner or later will cut off with it and even counter it. The role played by the Pakistani and Iranian fundamentalists and the black Taliban and tribal reaction and the presence of Al-Qaeda network in our land would prepare the ground for the return of the fundamentalists. The experiences from Iranian revolution, the events of the 1991 in Algeria, and 1998 in Turkey indicated that Islamic societies, despite having secular governments for decades, could return to fundamentalism. Therefore for the preservation and strengthening and irreversibility of the present process, there is a need for a role to be played by the intelligentsia and all forces believing in democracy and civil society that we comprise a part, become significant.
With the collapse of the democratic sovereignty of Afghanistan, the authority of ensuring peace and establishing national sovereignty and creating a state and preserving territorial integrity and independence of the country have been removed from the hands of Afghans. Afghans, in their own home, have lost the authority of ensuring peace and establishing state sovereignty. With the operation of the allied forces and the values inscribed in the Bonn agreements, now ways have been paved that the historic authority of establishment of an independent, free, peaceful, progressive and democratized Afghanistan, an active member of the international community, with due consideration of all the human right values and democratic norms, to return to Afghans.
Should Afghans not participate in the process of reconstruction, ensuring peace and establishing a lawful government based on democracy and human rights, they would lose the historic authority to their rights once again. Therefore in order for the widespread participation in this historic process, the need for the get to gather of all intelligentsia, organizations and political parties, without political and organizational preconditions, under one roof, is felt evermore. So therefore for the common aspirations of the people of Afghanistan, ensuring peace, democracy and building a civil society and reconstruction of the country we should prepare the grounds for the co-operation of all the intelligentsia.
The characteristic of the current process as it appears, is democracy and a government of law. A honest implementation of these two factors and timely and enough arrival of material and technical help can guarantee the rehabilitation of the country and normal progress and a successful transition from a war stricken condition and lesser developed country to a developed society. With the implementation of this program the direction of socio-economic growth would become clearer and the social structure would become more transparent that ultimately prepares the grounds for more concrete programs.
A temporary program for the future.
What we have in front of us today is a disintegrated society in which national unity is severely damaged. Disbursement of the productive forces and lack of internal production have in fact the principle of ownership, relations of production and the modality and composition of social classes and the issue of who rules whom seriously under question. As a matter of fact we are attempting to come out with a new program at a time that our economic- political and social system is not yet clear. If, on the one hand some lights of hope regarding the future have emerged, many questions also remain unanswered, on the other.
In such an unclear situation one can hardly come up with a detailed program for a longer span of time. Therefore, preparation of a new political program for a short span of time enjoys vital importance to embody the duties related to the period of transition from war to peace, ensuring stability, deepening democracy and a government of law and strengthening people's sovereignty.
Therefore the present struggle; in the first place, be pointed to the irreversibility of the current process. It means that the values inscribed in the Bonn agreements such as (National Reconciliation, permanent peace, human rights, ensuring independence, national sovereignty and territorial integrity, political self determination based on the sacred principles of Islam, democracy, pluralism and social justice etc and extending support to those who do believe in theses values. To this end the followings are of prime importance.
1. Preservation and defense of national unity, territorial integrity, sovereignty of the country, and principles on national identity.
2. Struggle for the strengthening and extension of democracy.
Respect for the vote and will of the people, freedom of expression and thought, formation of political parties, peaceful assembly, and free media. The right to travel within and abroad the country. The right to reside anywhere in the world.
3. Preparing the grounds for the formation and expansion of the civil society.
Multilateral support to all individuals and institutions attempting to end the long and bloody conflict in Afghanistan. Ensuring National Reconciliation, permanent peace and stability, and ensuring human rights of people of Afghanistan.
4. Struggle against any tendencies of resorting to coercion and violence as political means, conspiracies, and revenge.
5. Defending the principle of equality of humans before the law. The abolition of any kind of discrimination (e.g., racial, linguistic, gender, religious, or regional).
6. Struggle to ensure social justice, progress, peace and democracy.
7. Struggle against terrorism, terrorist cells, and warlordism.
8. Endeavoring for a democratic settlement of the tribal and ethnic issues. In order, for all nationalities and ethnic groups in Afghanistan to participate in the state apparatus. Prohibition of slander, prejudiced provocation, and discriminatory actions trying to raise hostilities, hatred and national hostility, ethnic, national, race supremacy and acceptance of a nationwide, secrete and direct balloting.
9 .Struggle against any kind of communalism, social or religious, ethnic or tribal traction's , separatism and tendencies of disintegration..
10.De-ideologizing the state apparatus.
11.Struggle for a parliamentary republic.
12.Observing Islam as the religion of the people of Afghanistan and the unprejudice policy of the state vis-à-vis the worshippers of other religions and guarantee of their religious observance.
13.Supporting the current processes of ensuring peace and ending war. (e.g., collecting arms and ending warlordism).
14.Establishing of a national army based on nationwide compulsory draft. Appointment of experienced professional officers loyal to the national interest. The future national army should be a guarantor of territorial integrity, national sovereignty and constitution of the country.
15.Support to inter- Afghani understanding.
16.Our understanding of the presence of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) based on the resolution of the United Nation's Security Council is to ensure peace, stability, cessation of foreign interference, suppressing the terrorist cells, and paving the way for the rehabilitation of Afghanistan. Therefore, during the military operations utilizing weapons of mass destruction should be discontinued. In areas where military operations jeopardise human and underground resources and threaten human rights, no military operations should be carried out.
1. Struggle for equality of rights of men and women. Preparing the foundations for the empowerment of women. Ensuring women's rights for equal participation in social activities such as receiving equal income for equal work as men. Women are half of the society and up-bringer of another half of it. Without their participation in social and political affairs, none can expect reconstruction, progress and development of the destroyed country, Afghanistan.
2. Taking steps towards educating religious leaders and compassionately regulating the affairs of the people involved in this area
3.Endeavors for the rehabilitation and establishment of social organizations, trade unions, peasant cooperatives, and paving the way for their reorganization.
4.Support to the rights of children and juveniles who have lost their parents. Struggle for ensuring a proper educational condition for them.
5. Support to the families of martyrs and disables of the long war and co-operation for resolving their problems through establishment of a fund, raising money and attracting support from international resources.
6. Supporting to measures for the participation of million s of Afghan refugees in the determination of their rights (ie. Voluntary and honorable return to Afghanistan. Enforcing legal guarantees for the resettlement and return of their properties and acceptance of dual nationality and hesitation from inserting any political and legal pressure by the host countries on them.
7. Struggle against cultivation, production, smuggle, trade and use of narcotics.
8. Encouragement and support to the establishment and expansion of health and social insurance and ensuring minimum amount of free health services.
1. 1. We are of the view that the economy of the country is absolutely destroyed and there is a need for re-establishing it. Re-establishment and rehabilitation of the economy of the country, in the first place, is of the need of active and dynamic participation of the people particularly experienced cadres. Putting uncultivated and rain-fed lands and pastures, with easy conditions to the hands of the producers, expansion of fruitful and fruitless forests, encouraging the inhabitants in protection and preservation and expansion of the forests and hesitation from the hunt of animals etc are of the essential steps.
2. 2. Under ground deposits, forests and underground and over-ground waters, mines and pastures belong to all the people of Afghanistan and a proper and useful use of them are of the state obligations.
3. 3. Without the participation of the government in the economic affairs and its co-operation and leadership, economic priorities cannot find direction, rate of growth maintained, people's standard of living improved and work for the unemployed found.
4. 4. Serious attention to the urban living systems and rehabilitation of water supply and electricity networks, mass media, picnic places and protection of the environment. Supplying of the urban services and expansion of the markets and improvement of the supply of healthy and cheap foodstuff in urban areas and ensuring cheap transport in cities and all over the country.
5. 5. Encouragement to investments in the area of building cheap houses and with minimum urban facilities.
6. 6. All sided support to the efforts and measures that are being launched for the reconstruction of Afghanistan.
7. 7. Support to the selfless international financial and economic assistance's for the reconstruction of the socio- economic infrastructures of Afghanistan.
8. 8. Promotion of a free market economy and attraction of foreign investments for the promotion and development of the economy of the country.
9. 9. All sided support to the measures that could increase domestic production in the areas of agriculture, industry, animal husbandry and craftsman-ship.
10. 10. Support to the national investors and private entrepreneurs and encouraging foreign capitals (including joint ventures) for investment inside the country.
11. 11. Rehabilitation and expansion of the industrial installations and making use of science and technology for the increase of employment and domestic production.
12. 12. Making logical use of all the economic capabilities, the present resources and capitals in the country.
13. 13. Struggle for social justice (ie. Attaching vaster role for the government in handling the country's economy through the state sector with regards to the promotion of the weaker layers and strata of the society. Just use of the national wealth particularly now that the overwhelming majority of the population of the country are living on relief supplies donated by international sources.
14. 14. Supply of healthy and cheap foodstuff to the consumers through coupon system.
15. 15. Ensuring the right of all nationalities and ethnic groups of the country for a coordinated and balanced use of the resources.
16. 16. Establishment of a modern and credible banking system.
17. 17. Establishment of an international assistance bank to channel international assistance and its healthy use.
1. 1. Struggle for the rehabilitation, promotion and protection of the national culture of the country as a common heritage of all the people of Afghanistan and endeavors for the recollection of the valuable historic and cultural artifacts of the country that have been looted in the recent years.
2. 2. Support to the creative activities of the cultural activists within and without the country.
3. 3. Support to the rehabilitation of the educational system with humanitarian, peace loving and fraternity among the people of Afghanistan, content.
4. 4. Support to the promotion and expansion of the languages of the people of Afghanistan and preparing the ground for the primary education in mother tongue.
5. 5. Struggle for free flow of information and free and independent activity of the press and other mass media.
6. 6. Active support to the rehabilitation and creation of the network of literacy courses in order to, step by step, uprooting the illiteracy in the country. Designing and implementation of simple methods for short-term educating those who have been deprived of literacy and education.
7. 7. Promotion and free expansion of the culture, language and other specifications related to the identification of the minorities.
8. 8. Attracting cooperation of the international resources for the preservation and rehabilitation of the historic artifacts and restoration of the looted ones.
1. 1. With the ending of the cold war and emergence of independent countries in Central Asia, serious changes have taken place in the geo-politic of the region in which our country has gained new geo-political importance. The future foreign policy of Afghanistan must be based on the present realities and past experience and embody and reflect the high national interests of the country.
2. 2. Pursuing a balanced policy and having free judgment in international relations, friendship with all countries of the world particularly the neighbors, respect for the UN charter and abiding by the Universal Declaration on Human Rights.
3. 3. Struggle against the use of force in International relations and interference with the internal affairs of sovereign countries. Support to the annihilation of the weapons of mass destruction such as atomic, biological and chemical weapons etc.
4. 4. The future Afghanistan should not be a source of tension and danger to the neighboring countries as well as the rest of the world. As well, by pursuing a policy of good neighborliness, the neighboring countries should hesitate to resort to any provocation that would end up to instability of the situation in the country.
5. 5. Struggle against violation of the human rights, genocide and ethnic cleansing all over the world.
6. 6. Support to the just struggles for peace, democracy and social justice in the world.
7. 7. Struggle against disease, poverty, this shameful phenomenon of the century, in the world, and endeavors for a just international economic order.
8. 8. Support to international efforts for the protection of the environment.
9. 9. Endeavors for ending the long economic and political isolation of Afghanistan through participation in the regional organizations and institutions.
10. 10. Attracting international assistance and international relief organizations in the public interests affairs such as improving the conditions of living of the disables.
11. 11. Since Afghanistan is located in the neighborhood of the countries with atomic weapon, endeavors should be made for international guarantees for the prevention of the threat of use and tests along the borders of our country by these countries.