By: Dr. Haroon Amirzada
بزرگترين فاجعه فرهنگی افغانستان
در مارچ 2001
بخش ا ول- چشم اندازی به افتخارات فرهنگی افغانستان
الف: افغانستان در
چار راهی تمدن ها
ب: ميراث های
بوديزم در افغانستان
بخش دوم -
طالبانيزم و وحشت
فرهنگی ( واکنش های جهانی)
بخش سوم - هويت تاريخی قربانی تروريزم فرهنگی ( واکنش
های روشنفکران افغنانستان)
بخش چهارم - طالبانيسم بحيث
مکتب خاص افراطيت مذهبی
بخش پنجم- طالبان جديد و بازی خطرناک جديد( بحث سرنوشت افغانستان در سايه منافع
استراتيژيک پاکستان و آمريکا در منطقه)
AFGHANISTAN'S GREATEST CULTURAL TRAGEDY
A RETROSPECT TO CULTURAL PRIDES OF AFGHANISTAN
I. Afghanistan and "Roundabout Civilisations"
Afghanistan is a mountainous, land-locked country in heart of south-central Asia, bounded on the west by Iran, on the south and east by Pakistan and on the north by Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and north-east by China.
Afghanistan is essentially a pastoral country 12% of land area is arable and only about half of the arable acreage is cultivated annually. Afghanistan is rich in a number of minerals such as gold, silver, iron, uranium, lazuli, copper, gas and so on. This country is also potentially rich in hydroelectric resources.
The population of Afghanistan estimated 26 millions by different sources.
Afghanistan is a multicultural country in which live different ethnic groups and the biggest tribes are :Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara and Uzbek. The official languages are: Persian ( Dary) and Pashto but the minorities languages are the third official languages in local minorities' areas according to the new Afghan Constitution. And also according to the new Constitution, Afghanistan is an Islamic state, 74% populations estimated to be the followers of Sunni Muslims and 26% of Shiite Muslims.
The new boundaries of Afghanistan were determined by the end of 19th century in the context of rivalry between Britain and Russia.
Historically, Afghanistan was known by three different names:
in ancient times (Aryana), in The Middle Ages (Khorasan) but after the invasion of Britain in 1839 the historical name of the country without any decisions of people of Khorasan changed and instead the new name "Afghanistan" was used. Since then "Afghanistan" has known as an official name of the country.
The last two decades wars and national crisis have raised the questions of legitimacy of some historical events. The name of "Afghanistan" is one of them. Many think that this controversial name is a fake and imposed identity which do not reflect the actual ethnical, cultural and the historical identity of this land. They believe it is one of the main barriers of national unity.
In 19th century, Afghanistan was a main door to India and one scene of 'The Great Game' between Britain and Russia , in 20th century, during the Cold War, especially after the invasion of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, this country was used one of the most important fields of competition between the Soviet Union and the United State of America.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union and particularly after the 11th of September 2001, Afghanistan has become special sphere of American interests in the world
If today Afghanistan from geopolitical point of view is located in a very important position, historically this country has always been at the crossroad of different civilisations. For Arnold Toynbee a British historian, Afghanistan was a "roundabout" civilisation, a region where influences converge and then fan out.
According to Toynbee, Koshans' Empire in history of Afghanistan played a bright role . The zenith of flourishing civilisation in Afghan history reached in Koshans' period . In this period merchants were descending from the Silk Route and from Yuheh-chih or Uighurs' places whose dynasty had started to believe Buddhism in 1st BC. Koshans controlled North of India, Afghanistan and the Pakistan's Gandahara for four centuries. But Koshan's art influenced by and influenced in turn a wide area in the region. The Greek-Rome, Egyptian, Mediterranean area, Persian, Indian Civilisations met each other, absorbed, transformed here and spread from here. Here happened the religious cross-fertilisation as we could find in Koshans' coins the Greek, Roman, Buddhist, Persian and Indian deities pictures. We could also see in Gandahara head the West Sculpture Classical Realism which had fertilised with Eastern Mysticism. The Koshan's art influenced the region when their long caravan of treasures passed on mountains to the furthest edges of Tranoxiana, Tibet, India and China(1).
Arnold Toynbee is not the only European that values Afghanistan's cultural and historical heritage, there are a lot of other scholars and Archaeologists that well understand about Afghanistan's heritage and its role in the region in through out history. David Lindahl a former resident and expert on Afghanistan's culture, says:" No other country has had such cultural influences from so many sources, from Persian, Mongol, Chinese, Greek, Roman, Mesopotamian civilisations. The Kabul Museum is second only to that in Baghdad in terms of enlightenment of the art of its period"
According to Nick Danziger a British veteran observer of Afghanistan, Afghanistan has a proud heritage. "It wasn't just trade that brought power and prestige to its towns and cities, but Kabul could once have claimed to have been the New York or Paris of its Time. The cities of Heart and Mazar-i-sharif and Kabul could claim a patchwork of nationalities that brought with them ideas, philosophies and religions." Mr. Danziger said .
II. Buddhist Heritage in Afghanistan
In March 2001 when Taleban were busy to demolish Buddhas statues in Afghanistan, hundreds archaeologists, scholars , journalists, Islamic and non-islamic priests and politicians around the world discussed and released materials about the role of Buddhism in ancient times and its influence in Afghanistan's history. The British mass media were one of them that published many materials about the historical role of Buddhism in Afghanistan.
Rosemary Righter is one of the British scholars that knew very well about the historical and cultural importance of Afghanistan in Asia. He wrote in his article "the wanton destruction" in The Times (UK) on 7th March 2001: " the Buddhas in Bamyan are one of those vast and long outside chains that have started from Sri Lanka and extended to Central Asia and also they almost followed the Old Silk Route to Chinese Turkistan. These Statues are not only solid and beautiful but also symbols of extraordinary and multilayered sculpture that had flourished in Afghanistan. They were designed in a convenient place where they survived from the last covetous invaders such as Aryans, Persians and Alexander the Great .
In ancient times, Afghanistan was one of the important places in Asia in which some powerful religions such as Zoroasterism (c.6thBC), Manichaeism(c.3th BC), Brahmanism, Buddhism and others played a big role in social life.
Buddhism founded in 528 BC in India by Siddhartha Gautama. The Buddha, Buddhism is a religion which originally aimed to reform "Hinduism". Although Buddhism was created in India, it was gradually spread in some Asian countries including Afghanistan.
The Bamyan valley which is located in the heart of Afghanistan between Hindukush mountains once was the most important centre of Buddhism before Islamic invaders. When, in AD632, the Chinese monk Xuan Ziang visited Bamyan, the great Buddha shone golden in the sun, apparently untouched by the White Huns who had ravished India at the Kabul valley in the fifth century. A later pilgrim, Hui-chiao, found the monasteries still populated in the eighth century. Buddhism here, as elsewhere in Afghanistan and India, was eventually absorbed by Hinduism; all vestiges of both were exterminated by the coming of the Islamic hordes.
Souren Melikian, art editor of the International Herarld Tribune, one of the world's leading scholars of the cultural history of Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asia about the Muslims' treatments to Buddhas in Bamiyan in course of history, writes in International Herald Tribune on March 7, 2001:
"Throughout History, Muslims have looked at the Buddhas of Bamyan without a word of condemnation. In early times they fascinated Buddhists and Muslims alike. Hiuan Tsang of china visited the site as a pilgrim in second of seventh century. He then saw the larger of the two Buddhas" glittering with gold and precious ornaments" an illusion to the ritual of " adorning the Buddha," when the statue would be clad in gold brocades and bejewelled
"In the 111th century, Samani, an east Iranian writer from Marv( now southern Turkmenistan), described the two " Idols". He noted that they were called" Sourkh But" and "Khing But" Moon -white Buddha) , wrote," They say there is nothing like it anywhere in the world"
He also writes that six centuries later, the Muslim author of a Persian Dictionary Written in India( the " Farhang Rashidi") still rated Khing But as " one of the wonders of our time.
The Mural paintings that covered the arched niches in which the Buddhas stand were much admired and are as important as the statues as unique visual evidence of painting around the seventh and eight centuries in that part of the world.
With only one exception, in the century when the artillery of a Mogul commander smashed the upper part of the larger Buddha, muslims from all round the world from Syria, Iran and India- gazed at the Buddhas with deep interest, just as they did at other ancient monuments.
On March 2001, The Sydney Morning Herarld's journalist, Michael Browning in his reports about the historical importance of Buddhas in Bamyan writes " carved 1,500 years ago, forgotten for upwards of a millennium, and rediscovered in the early 1800s, the great Buddhist images of Bamyan represented the most magnificent collection of religious art in Afghanistan. He also says that the Bamyan cliffs represented a treasure house of ancient sculpture. The statues were most likely carved as votive offerings by merchants praying for a safe journey from India to Bokhora in Central Asia, and included two gigantic standing statues of Buddha, hewn from cliffs behind them, one of which is 57 metres high".
" the vally of Bamiyan stands at level of abut 8,500 feet; the passes out of it northward to Balkh or southward to Kabul rise to 11,000 and 12,000 feet" writes Thomas Holdich in his 1910 classic of Central Asian geography, the gates of India.
About 1,500 years ago, the valley of Bamiyan was a busy junction on the trade route between China and India, in a part of Asia where languages and religions- Buddhism, Hinduism and late Islam- co existed. It was also a home to a great Buddhist monastic centre, one that nurtured epoch changing religious concepts and produced a fantastic new art, including the world largest rock-carved figures of the standing Buddha.
Before the war, Bamyan was one of the most popular places in Afghanistan where hundred tourists annually visited it. In addition, tens afghan and foreign archaeologists had spent their time for profound studying of cultural fertilisations, religions, geography and businesses had taken place here through out history.
Unfortunately, today Afghanistan is a land of vanished civilisations where before 11th September, 2001 was a "paradise" and harbour for international terrorism, the main centre of production and export of heroin in the world, the place of anti Islamic and none Islamic civilisations, the place of ethnic cleansing , human rights abuses and especially, against women rights in the world.
The collapse of Taleb- terrorists' regime in Afghanistan opened a new chapter in history of Afghanistan. However, a nation building of a new and civilised Afghanistan may need hard efforts of a few generations
TALEBANISM AND CULTURAL BARBARISM
Three years ago on March 2001, world witnessed of Talebans' acts of barbarism in Afghanistan. Taleban by demolishing two giant Buddhas statues in Bamyan, not only shocked the Afghan people but also all the world.
They destroyed 1700 years History of Afghanistan in the name of Islam in couple of weeks. It was a strategic destruction and Afghanistan lost part of her rich culture and historical identity. In other words, it is a cultural tragedy not only for Afghanistan but also for all humankind. Therefore, Talebans' acts of vandalism for the first time not only raised the anger and hates among Muslims and non- Muslims around the world but also grabbed the attention of the entire world toward the actual danger of Taleban beyond Afghanistan. Indeed, Taleban after the destruction of buddhas in Bamiyan, showed their actual faces as a No.1 enemies of civilisation in worldwide.
Despite the objections of UNESCO, UN, Islamic organisations and worldwide condemnation, Taleban arrogantly completed the demolishing of the two giant Buddha statues in Bamyan. As we witnessed, the world expressed their angers and hatreds by massive meetings, demonstrations and discussions in several months until September events.
There are some of the world's opinions and reactions about the Talebans' act of vandalism in 2001 as follows:
Buddhas belong to Humankind
Tina Rosenberg writes about the destruction of Buddhas in Bamyan in The New York Times 15/03/2001:"…All cultural sites, but especially these, belong not just to a nation or its government, but to all humankind."
Taleban and age of Jahiliya
In another issue of The New York Times on 3rdAugust, 2001, an article was written by Reuel Marc Gerecht about the Talebans' narrow mind and their understanding of today's life compared with before Muhammad's time where it was jahiliyya age of ignorance. He points out : "for Muslim fundamentalists, like the Taleban of Afghanistan, the jahiliyya didn't end in the seventh century. They see modern times as a constant affront to the purist principles that God ordained. The tolerance of traditional Islam, which in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent even its peace with polytheists and idol worshipers, is as a foreign to them as the secular principles of western civilisation."
Michael Browning in Sydney Times writes:"…to scholars of Asian Art, the destruction of Buddha's would be catastrophic apart from Bamyan's rarity as one of the few examples of monumental Buddhists' sculpture, it holds a key to countless questions about how Buddhism developed internally and shaped virtually every culture in Asia.
It also reflects major shifts in Buddhism itself. For centuries, Buddha was revered as a human figure, but this time he came to be seen as a transcendent being an icon."
Islamic and non- Islamic Beliefs
Iran one of Afghanistan's neighbouring countries that have historical, linguistically and religious relationship with Afghanistan, was shocked when they heard that the two unique giant Buddhas were obliterated by Taleban in the name of Islam. Iran news writes "Islam has never preached the destruction of objects that embody the belief and history of millions of people throughout the world"
Taleban acts of Vandalism
Unite Sates of America was one of those countries that condemned the destruction of Buddhas in Bamyan. The State Department Chief of Public Diplomacy for South Asia, Richard Hoagland, Helna Finn, Acting Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs and Khalid Duran, editor of 'Trans Islam Magazine' in one radio discussion condemned Talebans' act of vandalism
Mr Hoagland said on the voice of America "on the line" program on March 16, 2001: " This horrible act of cultural barbarism is really destroying the fabric of the culture of Afghanistan that has respected for hundreds and hundreds of years by the Afghan people themselves".
Damage to Afghanistan's Rich Culture
Mr. Khalid Duran said " These are not the first statues or the first treasures that they have destroyed. Already before the destruction of those statues, they have done immense damage to Afghanistan's very rich cultural patrimony. Afghanistan is an extraordinary country. It appears to rugged and wild, but at the same time is has some of the most marvellous treasures in the world. Some of the mosques in Afghanistan are-the most beautiful anywhere
Taleban and Crime against Humankind
Elena Finn believes that the destruction of Buddhas was a tragedy and crime against humankind.
Buddhas and Globle Heritage
Nick Danziger in his article on 7th March 2001 in 'The Times" (UK) writes that Afghanis6tan is a vanished civilisations; however, the latest conquerors of the country, the Tale ban, threatened to erase all those that have gone before them…The destruction of the giant statues of Buddha poses a threat to our global heritage, but I see in it a much greater threat.
Taleban and Fascism
Mr.Danziger added : "Taleban is emulating the regimes of Pol Pot and Hitler; it is intent on changing the world order, it is bent on policies that will result in the annihilation of everything that is uniquely Afghan and its extraordinary diversity. The damage is not just physical and material; the soul and spiritual wellbeing of Afghans has been under constant attack.'
He finalised his concern and sorrow:"The Bamyan statues represent more than historical masterpieces. Afghanistan's loss is ours."
Insulting Alien Beliefs
Buddhist counties like Sri Lanka, Japan, India were the among countries that became so angry by this insulting act against their beliefs.
Sell your Heritage
There were a lot of museums that suggested buying Buddhas statues but Taleban refused. India was one of those countries that asked Taleban to hand over the relics for preservation. If the Taleban authorities did not wish to retain their inheritance, India would be happy to arrange for the transfer of all these arte facts to India where they would be kept safely and preserved for mankind. Jaswan Singh,the Indian foreign minister said.
Taleban and problem of Common Sense
Mr.Lundars who is also the Greek ambassador in Pakistan asked Taleban to"use common sense". But Taleban didn't use common sense because they were brain washed in Pakistan. They didn't know the value and the historical importance of that unique heritage of Afghanistan and humankind.
Afghanistan's History in Auction
"A stream objects d'art, roughly excavated, has proud out of Afghanistan for a decade. They include an overwhelming proportion of the bronze vessels sold at auction and in the art trade as " early Islamic" as well as pottery, much of it from Bamiyan. Add an equally large number of antiquities from second millennium B.C. Bactria ( the land around Balkh) to the Buddhist sculptures. " Souren Melikian- International Herald Tribune, March 7, 2001
The Greatest Tragedy
Joe Cribb of the British Museum said :"Until modern scholarship began to investigate these sculptures, we knew a little about the history of Afghanistan…we won't know the answers to many questions if the destruction of the statues goes ahead." Experts welcomed the Metropolitan Museum of Art's offer to rescue portable artefacts, but said the loss of the giant ancient Bamyan Buddhas, which cannot be moved, would be the greatest tragedy.
Lost of Unique Symbols
The colossal statues of Buddha high in the Hindukush mountains "are unique and are tremendously symbolic", Raymond Allchin, Emeritus reader in Indian studies at Cambridge University, said.' They encapsulate the spread of Buddhism into Central Asia. It is unthinkable that they should be destroyed."
No Words to Describe Feelings
Koichiro Matsuura, Director- general of UNESCO, said:" they are destroying statues that the entire world considers to be masterpieces. And this being done in the name of an interpretation of the Muslim faith that is not recognised anywhere else in the world. Words fail me to describe my feelings as I see the reports of the irreversible damage that is being done to Afghanistan's exceptional cultural heritage"
Buddhas and Tajmahal
The destruction of the giant Buddhas was" as if the Indian Governement to deice to demolish the Tajmahal" said fransec Vendrell, a United Nations envoy to Afghanistan. He also said " I hope the Taleban reconsider and realise that they would pay a very high price for the destruction of the Bamiyan statues"
Buddha in Fire
Ahmad Rashid writes in The Daily Telegraph, Saturday March 3, 2001 that Taleban's tanks and artillery fire on Buddhas. He also said that the appeal to spare the Afghan relics were made by America, France,Germany, Thailand, Japan,Srilanka, Iran,Nepal,Vietnam,Pakistan,Russia, India,Malayasia, The European Union, The United Nation Secretary- General Kofi Annan and many Museums and Buddhist groups couldn't change the decision of Talaban.
Memoirs of a vanished land
Mrs Nancy Hatch Dupree, an American historian who lived for a long time in Afghanistan before and during the wars, has bright memories about the architectural heritage of this country. She witnessed of Afghan stolen artefacts in Peshawar. The destruction of Buddhas in Bamiyan horrified her. Written by Luke Harding ( The Guardian Sunday September 20,2001)
Muttawakil:We Must Destroy Buddhas
Francisco Vendrell flew to Kabul with protest notes from Mr Annan but he was given short shrift.The abandoned relics are not our pride Mullah Muttawakill told to Vendrell. Muttawakil also said" whatever means of destruction are needed will be used"
Buddha Victim of Dogma
" Outrage as the defiant Taleban blow away 1,700 years of history". It was the title of article of The Observer on March 4,2001 which was written by Jason Burke.
" For the Buddhas of Bamiyan the end has begun they have stood above the rugged valleys and turquoise lakes of central Afghanistan since the heyday of the Silk Route more than 1500 years ago. By the Middle of this week the two huge statues will be gone- victim of dogma, desperation and 20 years of war" said Mr.Burke
Destrucion in Progress
The senior officials of the Taleban millitial government yesterday ignored international out rage and proudly announced that their troops were progressing well with the demolition work. The head and legs of the Buddha statues in Bamiyan have been destroyed" said Qudratullah Jamal, the Taleban Information and Cultural Minister"
" Our soldiers are working very hard to demolish their remaining parts. They will come down soon. We are using every thing at our disposal to destroy them. There is no question of stopping." He also said: elsewhere, in Afghanistan thousands of other artefacts were being smashed
Paying High Price
Nadeem Yaqub" Afghans to pay the price for Taleban's defiance"
Asia Times on Line March 7, 2001
Cutting Their Roots
The Dawn writes: "It would appear that the Taleban are cutting at their own roots". The Dawn also writes that Peshawar is a major market of Afghan stolen artefacts.
The Heritage Terrorism that Is Designed To Shock Us
Anger at the West is one motive for the vandalism in Afghanistan, says Neal Ascherson( The Observer 4, March, 2001)
"Buddha's Tragedy and Beyond"- Edward Girardet - The Chrician Sience Monitor- Geneva 3/14/2001
Afghanistan Shaken by Taleban Acts of Vandalism
Zahid Hussain-Kabul( The Times( UK) Friday March 16,2001
HISTORICAL IDENTITY VICTIM OF CULTURAL TERRORISM
Although most of Afghans were familiar with Talebans' atrocities and acts of barbarism, the destruction of twin statues in Bamiyan shocked them once more again. Most of Afghans outside the country expressed their angers, sorrow and loathing to Taleban by demonstrations, meetings, seminars and conferences. They believed the destruction of the two unique statues was a national tragedy and lost of part of their historical identity.
On 17th June, 2001, Embassy of Afghanistan in London invited an International conference about the obliteration of the National Heritage of Afghanistan in School of Oriental and African Studies in London. Some Afghan and foreign scholars from other countries participated in this conference. The conference in its final declarations to all patriots of Afghanistan suggested to call the day of demolishing of Buddhas statues "National Tragedy ".
The conference participants believed that the cultural tragedy of Afghanistan was part of Afghan plights in two decade wars. However, the economical or material damages could be recoverable in short or long terms but not historical heritage lost such as the plundered and obliterated artefacts of Kabul Museum, the lost of valuable historical documents of National Archive, and the destruction of Buddhas in Bamiyan.
Many believe that three factors apparently provoked Taleban to demolish the twin statues: firstly, religious; secondly, ethnical and thirdly, political motives. If the destruction of Buddha for Taleban was important from religious and tribalism point of views, for Pakistanis who created Taleban had political importance. As witnesses after the toppling of Taleban in November 2001 revealed, the statues were destroyed by active participations of Pakistanis engineers and Alqaeda organisation.
As far as we know, Taleban hated Hazaras in Bamiyan. They decided to obliterate whatever is in Bamiyan from human and animal lives to stones. But Pakistanis saw in the destruction of the two giant Buddha statues the following goals:
1. oblitrate Afghanistan's past rich and bright history;
2. humiliate Afghan people;
3.show Afghans to the world as a beast and anti- civilised people;
4. Provoke the antagonism between Muslims and none Muslims, particularly in India in order to gain some benefits in the Kashmir disputes.
While world was thinking about the Taleban's danger beyond Afghanistan, USA and Pakistan still emphasized that the Taleban were useful for their geopolitical interests. But USA acknowledged their mistakes just on September 11, 2001 and it was too let.
As Reuel Marc Greecht, a fellow at the Project for the new American Century and a former Middle East specialist in the Central Intelligence Agency on reaction of the destruction of Buddhas by Taleban said: "It is too late to save Bamyan's treasures, but it is not too late for the United States to play hardball. The Bush administration could give a small slice of the multibillion dollar counterterrorist budget to Mr Masoud that might bring Mullah Omar down to earth. He and his supporters, particularly the Pakistanis, might reconsider the unthinkable the shutting down Mr. Bin Laden's operations if the alternative were the dissipation and the destruction of Taleban."
He also pointed that Mr. Masoud, a devout Muslim, is unquestionably one of the greatest guerrilla commanders of our era. He detests the Taleban's treatment of women; he has no truck with Mr. Bin Laden. A literate man, he is no doubt horrified by the most recent attack on Afghanistan's Buddhist patrimony.
Although Mr Reuel's voices was not heard by Bush administration, Europeans heard such voices and it was not accidentally that European Union invited Mr. Ahmad shah Massoud the only resistance leader against the terrorists in his homeland to European parliament for political support on April 2001 after a month of Talebans' act of Barbarism. Indeed, it was direct reaction of Europeans against Talebans' acts of vandalism.
Mr. Reuel was also right when Mr Massoud was visiting Europe he not only strongly condemned the destructin of Buddha by Taleban and their close allies such as Mr Laden and Pakistanis supporters but he also revealed that the danger of Laden's terrorist groups will soon extend beyond Afghanistan to USA and the whole world. He especially asked for help from Mr Bush. But Mr Bush as Mr Clinton was watching Taleban's and Alqaeada's activity in Afghanistan from the Pakistanis glasses. Nevertheless world was not recovered from Afghanistan's and humankind's cultural tragedy by hands of Taleban and their terrorists allies, two other human tragedies shocked the whole world in a few months later; Mr. Massoud was assassinated in 9th September 2001 and thousands were killed in United States in two days after that date on 11/9 by the hands of the same people.
Therefore, it will be logic to put Buddhas (March 2001) and Massoud's tragedies ( 9th September 2001) together with the tragedy of 11th September, 2001 in one context.
The Times of India in its issue on March 7,2001 after the condemnation the Taleban's acts of anti civilisation, asked:" Tell me, who will destroy the Taleb idols, the ones they call Mullah Omar and Osama Bin Laden?"
As live after events of September showed the "Idol" of Mr Omar and Mr. Laden was obliterated by Northern Alliance (The United Front for Salvation of Afghanistan) with active support of the International Coalition under the leadership of USA in Afghanistan in November 2001.
Anyway, the idols of Taleban were destroyed but, their horrible inheritance will remain for a long and long time. Unfortunately, nobody neither can resurrect human lives lost in 9th and 11th September 2001 nor recover the obliterated Buddha Statues in Bamiyan.
In my opinion, it was not only acts of heritage terrorism but it was a cultural crime that Taleban and their Pakistanis allies should be brought to justice in court of law in Hague.
TALEBANISM: SPECIAL SCHOOL OF ISLAMIC EXTREMISM
Many think that terrorism is No.1 enemy of our civilisation but I think Talebanism is the most top enemies of today's civilisations. Because Talebanism is a special school of Islamic extremism which is antagonistic with most of today's and the past values of humankind. In other words, Talebanism neither believes the old civilisations nor the modern ones, except part of Islamic culture accordance to their primitive understanding of Islam. It is thought that three main factors played in formation of Super extremist ideology of Taleban: firstly, tribal cultures; secondly, extremist interpretations of Islam; thirdly, political motives.
Taleban as a Pakistani phenomenon
Taleban as a military organisation was first of all a Pakistani phenomenon while was created in 1994. This organisation consisted of not only from the Afghanis religious pupil of the Islamic Medrassas (school) in Pakistan but also hundreds of extremists and terrorist groups from all round the world. In addition, hundreds of Pakistanis soldiers and Pakistanis extremist groups actively participated in this organisation in the past 7 years and fought against Afghan people.
As far as the captives of the Taleban after their collapse in November 2001 revealed that more than 50 nationalities including USA, Britons and Australian citizens were among the Taleban s' terrorist organisation.
Taleban and Islam
From an ideological point of view, Taliban's Islamic views are very narrow and bizarre even for other Islamic fundamentalists around the world. Taleban had been brain washed in Pakistanis' Islamic schools( madrassa) and they had been taught anti modern civilisation lessons just for the purposes of fighting and destroying anything that is different from their narrow views.
In Pakistanis 'Dubandism Islamic schools' there were not any courses or programmes for understanding Eastern and Western civilisations where Taleban were taught by Pakistanis Intelligent Services, Pakistanis extremist groups and Arabic fanatic groups. They had been so deep brain washed in those schools that they hated even music, dance, photos, portraits, cinema, television, video, computer, some kind of colours , sports and also girls' studying in schools and in universities, working of women outside of the houses. Therefore, human rights, democracy, respect for women, respect and tolerance for other religions and beliefs, commitment and respect for the international laws and also national and global values were alien and meaningless for Taleban. national and global values were alien and meaningless for Taleban.
national and global values were alien and meaningless for Taleban.
"national interests of Afghanistan", rebuilding of Afghanistan, friendship between different Afghan's ethnicities and many other
Taleban and Geopolitics
From a geopolitical point of view the mission of this organisation was so obvious: capturing Afghanistan and establishing a dependent and servant Government for Pakistan and also using this country for it's" Deep Strategic "goals against India and influence in Central Asian countries. But Pakistan was not the only country that played a big role in creating and supporting the "Taleban project", there were other countries such as USA, UK and Saudi Arabia that politically, economically and ideologically contributed the creation and supporting of that "evil" until the tragic event in USA in September 2001.
If for USA and UK 'Taleban project 'was a powerful and useful tool for achieving their geopolitical interests against Influence of Iran and Russia in Central Asia, for Saudi Arabia they were suitable tool for spreading Wahhabism in Central Asia and preventing the influence of Iranian Shiisim in the region.
The role of the CIA with Pakistanis ISI to create Taleban for their geopolitical agendas, despite the "evil" acts of them in Afghanistan is not a political imagination but it is undeniable fact.
Selig Harrison from the Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars at the conference on "Terrorism and Regional Security: Managing the Challenges in Asia" said: The CIA made a historical mistake in encouraging Islamic groups from all over the world to come to Afghanistan… Now it is Pakistan that holds the key to the future of Afghanistan". He added:" the USA provides $3 billion for building up these Islamic groups, and it accepted Pakistan's demand that they should decide how this money should be spent". "I warned them(CIA) that we were creating a monster."
Mr Harrison is not the only person that criticised the USA and Pakistan in creating and supporting of Taleban until September 2001.
Since September hundred books, articles, analysis and films from different sources in the worldwide also revealed that the USA and Pakistan created the Taleban as a terrorist organisation for a dangerous game.
Taleban's actions in the past 7 years showed that they did their job very well first of all for interests of Pakistanis, international terrorism and heroin mafia and also in the field of destruction of the country, massacre of the people, getting the bad image for Islam and for Afghanistan in worldwide.
New Taleban and New Dangerous Game
Three years past from the demolishing of Buddas in Bmiyan, and about two years and five months from toppling of Taleban's regime but neither Taleban and their loyalists nor Pakistanis have punished for this crime and genocides . Meanwhile, Hundreds new schools and military camps for Taleban and International terrorist organisations were opened in tribal areas of Pakistan. In addition, Islamabad in the past two years reorganised the Taleban and their terrorist allies and are still sending them for fighting and destruction in Afghanistan. Indeed, Pakistanis are playing the old game; "Taleban card" and their main strategy is domination in Afghanistan.
This is a real paradox that Pakistan apparently allied with USA against international terrorists and getting millions of dollars for its support but at the same time this country mobilizing terrorists including Alqaeda organisation in their land. Further more, recently, world was shocked that Islamabad has created a "black nuclear market" in the world. This country has sold for the price of million dollars nuclear information to the countries such as Libya, North Korea and Iran that Washington calls them their number one enemies in the world.
Therefore, there are rising some questions such as: why does United States compromise with Pakistan destabilizing policy of Afghanistan and the whole region? Why does Washington downplay Islamabad's nuclear black business in the world? Has USA really decided to eradicate terrorism in the region including in Pakistan as a motherland of international terrorism?
In my opinion, the complex ties between Washington and Islamabad have complicated the situation not only in Afghanistan but also in the region. There is not doubt that Washington and Islamabad Afghan policies leading a new dangerous game and it is thought that Mr Khalilza will be one of the main manager of this game.
Meanwhile, Khalilzad with his Afghan Special Team inside Karzais government designed a " Road Map" for the future of Afghanistan which especially,
satisfies Pakistan's Talebanism policy. According to this strategy people of Afghanistan will face new challenges. One of these challenges will be the return of part of old Taleban to power in the name of so called " Moderate Taleban".
Mr Mottawakil is one of the leader of Taleban who especially, emphasised the destruction of Buddha, is thought to be one of them. Now he is especially being trained and is being protected by American bodyguards for the new future games.
The return of genocides and cultural barbarisms neither delight most of Afghans nor Buddhas of Bamiyan. But undoubtedly, it will satisfy Taleban sympathisers, especially Pakistanis. Anyway, the revenge for obliteration of Buddhas in Bamiyan will always remain in heart and minds Afghan history .
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36. // , March 16,2001
Writer: Dr. Haroon Amirzada
March , 2004